Yapı Projelerinin Süre-Maliyet Optimizasyonunda Metasezgisel Algoritma Kullanımı

Gülçağ ALBAYRAK, İlker ÖZDEMİR
803 238

Öz


Yapı projelerinin belirlenen zaman ve bütçe çerçevesinde tamamlanabilmesi proje yöneticileri açısından en önemli konulardan biridir. Bunun sebebi projelerde kullanılan tüm kaynakların uygulamada sınırlı olarak bulunmasının yanı sıra sürenin de problemin bir kısıtlayıcısı olmasıdır. Böylelikle, toplam proje maliyetini oluşturan malzeme ve işçilik gibi tüm kaynakların hedeflenen proje süresiyle uyumlu olacak şekilde en baştan değerlendirilerek planlamanın yapılması ihtiyacı ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu aşamada en kritik nokta proje yöneticilerinin bütçe ile süre arasında bir denge kurabilmesidir. Optimizasyon adı verilen ve bir problem üzerinde en iyi sonucu elde edebilme teknikleri olarak tanımlanan çalışmalar proje planlama alanında sıklıkla kullanılmaktadır. Optimizasyon teknikleri geçmişten günümüze oldukça büyük değişim göstermiştir.  Geçmişte yapı projelerinde karşılaşılan süre-maliyet optimizasyon problemlerine kesin hesap yöntemleri gibi geleneksel yöntemlerle yaklaşılmış, problemin içerdiği karmaşıklık çözüme ulaşmayı güçleştirdiğinden daha gelişmiş yöntemlere ihtiyaç duyulmuştur. Bu sebeple yeni tekniklerin birbiri ardına ortaya konulduğu ve var olan tekniklerin durmaksızın geliştirildiği optimizasyon alanında son yıllarda metasezgisel algoritmalar adı verilen çok sayıda yöntem türetilmiştir.  Metasezgisel algoritmalar kesin çözümü garanti etmemekle birlikte yakınsama özelliği ile optimuma yakın çözümleri elde etmede oldukça kullanışlıdır. Bu çalışmada evrimsel algoritmalar, doğadan esinlenen algoritmalar ve melez algoritmalar gibi süre-maliyet optimizasyon probleminin çözümüne yönelik algoritmalar tanıtılmakta ve literatürdeki çalışmalar hakkında bilgi verilmektedir. 


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