IS THE SPATIAL CONSERVATION OF A HISTORICAL NEIGHBOURHOOD ALONE, ABLE TO MAKE IT SUSTAINABLE?

İ.Bakır KANLI
1.243 291

Öz


TARİHİ BİR MAHALLENİN SADECE MEKANSAL OLARAK KORUNMASI ONU SÜRDÜRÜLEBİLİR KILAR MI?

Öz

Hızlı ve plansız kentleşmenin en önemli kaotik problemlerinden olan; çarpık kentleşme ve ekolojik bozulma, özellikle gelişmekte olan ülkelerin gündeminde olağanüstü bir olgu olarak yer almaktadır. Bu süreç tarihi dokuların üzerindeki baskıyı son otuz ya da kırk yılda daha bir arttırmış ve şehirleri ‘sürdürülebilirlik’ kavramı ile tanıştırmıştır. Böylece; gerek fiziki mekânın gerekse bu mekânda yaşayacak toplumların sosyal-ekonomik sürdürülebilirliklerin eşgüdüm halinde sağlanması son derece önemli bir konu haline gelmiştir.

Bu makale Gaziantep şehrinin tarihi dokusunda yer alan ve bir dönem gerek Ermeni gerekse Yahudi toplumlarına da ev sahipliği ya da komşuluk yapan Bey Mahallesi’nde, gerçekleştirilen bir araştırmanın sonuçlarına dayanılarak hazırlanmıştır. Makalenin en önemli amacı; tarihi dokuların fiziki mekân sürdürülebilirliği ile sosyal yapısının sürdürülebilirliği arasındaki güçlü ilişkiyi ortaya koymaktır. Araştırma kapsamında mahallede gerçekleştirilen anket ve mülakatlardan elde edilen veriler ile belediye tarafından uygulanan sokak sağlıklaştırma projesi, sürdürülebilirliğin temel faktörleri göz önünde tutularak analitik bir süreçten geçirilerek yorumlanmıştır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Mahalle, Sürdürülebilirlik, Kültürel Miras Koruması, Bey Mahallesi, Gaziantep. 




Tam metin:

PDF (English)


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.16953/deusbed.84369

Referanslar


Ahmed, K. G. (2012). Urban social sustainability: A study of the Emirati local communities in Al Ain. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 5 (1): 41-66.

Bijoux, D., Saville-Smith, K. and Lietz, K. (2008). The importance of urban neighbourhoods: Measuring neighbourhood sustainability in New Zealand. Ecocity World Summit 2008 Proceedings, 21st-26th April 2008, San Francisco, USA.

Bolay, J. C. (2012). What sustainable development for the cities of the south? Urban issues for a third millennium. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 4 (1): 76-93.

Bruff, G. E. and Wood, A. P. (2000). Making sense of sustainable development: Politicians, professionals, and policies in local planning. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 18 (5): 593-607.

Bramley, G., Dempsey, N., Power, S. and Brown, C. (2006). What is ‘social sustainability’, and how do our existing urban forms perform in nurturing it?. University College of London The Bartlett School of Planning, The Global Places, Local Spaces, Planning Research Conference, 5th-7th April 2006, London, UK.

Choguill, C. L. (2008). Developing sustainable neighbourhoods. Habitat International, 32 (1): 41-48.

Chohan, A. Y. and Ki, P. W. (2005). Heritage conservation a tool for sustainable urban regeneration. 41st ISoCaRP Congress, 17th-20th October 2005, Bilbao, Spain.

Crabtree, L. (2005). Sustainable housing development in urban Australia: Exploring obstacles to and opportunities for ecocity efforts. Australian Geographer, 36 (3): 333-350.

Delafons, J. (1997). Politics and preservation: A policy history of the built heritage 1882-1996. First Edition. London: E and F.N. Spon.

Dempsey, N., Bramley, G., Power, S. and Brown, C. (2011). The social dimension of sustainable development: Defining urban social sustainability. Sustainable Development, 19 (5): 289-300.

Farreny, R., Oliver-Solà, J., Rieradevall, J., Gabarrell, X., Escribà, E. and Montlleó, M. (2010). The ecodesign and planning of sustainable neighbourhoods: the Vallbona case study (Barcelona). SB10mad Sustainable Building Conference, 28th-30th April 2010, Madrid, Spain.

Forrest, R. and Yip, N. M. (2007). Neighbourhood and neighbouring in contemporary Guangzhou. Journal of Contemporary China, 16 (50): 47-64.

Gaziantep Analitik Etüt Raporu [Gaziantep Analytic Research Report] (2009). Ankara: Egeplan Planlama Ltd. Şti.

Gaziantep Büyükşehir Belediye Başkanlığı Koruma Uygulama ve Denetim Bürosu [Gaziantep Metropolitan Municipality Directorate for the Inspection of Conservation Implementations] (2012). Personal Interview, (24.09.2013).

Gaziantep Emniyet Müdürlüğü (2013). Bey Mahallesi 2002-2012 yılları arası suç oranları. [Gaziantep Police Department (2013). The crime rates for the years 2002-2012 in Bey neighbourhood.]

GhaffarianHoseini, A. (2012). Ecologically sustainable design (ESD): Theories, implementations and challenges towards intelligent building design development. Intelligent Buildings International, 4 (1): 34-38.

Gisborne/New Gisborne Outline Development Plan (2009). Revised Final Report - for exhibition purposes, September 2009, http://www.mrsc.vic.gov.au/files/assets/public/planning_building/gisborne_odp_-_section_one.pdf, (05.11.2013).

Gül, G. (2005). Gaziantep ili Bey (Kayacık) mahallesi geleneksel doku koruma ve geliştirme önerisi. [A proposal for the protection of the traditional fabric: Gaziantep Bey Neighbourhood]. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis. Gazi University, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, Ankara.

Haapio, A. (2012). Towards sustainable urban communities. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 32 (1): 165-169.

Healey, P. (2006). Transforming governance: Challenges of institutional adaptation and a new politics of space. European Planning Studies, 14 (3): 299-320.

Homer, A. (2000). Creating new communities: The role of the neighbourhood unit in post war British planning. Contemporary British History, 14 (1): 63-80.

Howley, P., Scott, M. and Redmond, D. (2009). Sustainability versus liveability: An investigation of neighbourhood satisfaction. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 52 (6): 847-864.

Johnson, D. (2002). Towards sustainability: Examples from the UK coast. Harris, R., Griffin, T., and Williams, P. (Eds). Sustainable Tourism: A global perspective: In 167-179. Oxford: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.

Johnson, K., Hays, C., Center, H. and Daley, C. (2004). Building capacity and sustainable prevention innovations: A sustainability planning model. Evaluation and Program Planning, 27 (2): 135-149.

Jenks, M. and Dempsey N. (2005). Future forms and design for sustainable cities. Oxford: Architectural Press.

Jiboye, A. D. (2011). Sustainable urbanization: Issues and challenges for effective urban governance in Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4 (6): 211-224.

Kanlı, İ. B. and Alpdoğan, M. F. (2012). A look at the neighbourhood concept in the context of urbanisation in the Ottoman Empire. World Journal of Islamic History and Civilization, 2 (3): 166-174.

Karaman, O. and İslam, T. (2012). On the dual nature of intra-urban borders: The case of a Romani neighbourhood in Istanbul. Cities, 29 (4): 234-243.

Karol, E. and J. Brunner. (2009). Tools for measuring progress towards sustainable neighbourhood environments. Sustainability and Risk: Conflicts and Congruence, 1 (3): 612-627.

Karuppannan S. and Sivam A. (2011). Social sustainability and neighbourhood design: An investigation of residents’ satisfaction in Delhi. Local Environment, 16 (9): 849-870.

Kuhlman, T. and Farrington J. (2010). What is sustainability?. Sustainability (Review), 2 (11): 3436-3448.

Lebel, A., Pampalon, R. and Villeneuve, P. Y. (2007). A multi-perspective approach for defining neighbourhood units in the context of a study on health inequalities in the Quebec City region. International Journal of Health Geographics, 6 (27): http://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-6-27.

Lotfi, S. (2009). An investigation of sustainable development in urban neighborhoods using statistical models. American Journal of Environmental Science, 5 (3): 427-433.

Meter, K. (1999). Neighborhood sustainability indicators guidebook: How to create neighborhood sustainability indicators in your neighborhood. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Crossroads Resource Center.

Momeni, M., Azizi, H. and Taghinia, M. (2011). Urban management based on citizen participation to enhance quality of life in Tehran. M. Schrenk, V. V. Popovich and P. Zeile (Eds.) Proceedings: Change for stability: Lifecycles of cities and regions: In 1079-1086. Real Corp 2011 - 16th International Conference on Urban Planning Regional Development and Information Society, 18-20 May 2011 Essen.

Nasser, N. (2003). Planning for urban heritage places: Reconciling conservation, tourism and sustainable development. Journal of Planning Literature, 17 (4): 467-479.

Ng, M. K., Cook, A. and Chui, E. W. T. (2001). The road not travelled: A sustainable urban regeneration strategy for Hong Kong. Planning Practice and Research, 16 (2): 171-183.

Oh, K., Lee, D. and Park, C. (2011). Urban ecological network planning for sustainable landscape management. Journal of Urban Technology, 18 (4): 39-59.

Oktay, D. (2012). Sustainable urbanism revisited: A holistic framework based on tradition and contemporary orientations. O. Y. Ercoskun (Ed.) Green and Ecological Technologies for Urban Planning: Creating Smart Cities: In 17-36. 1st Edition. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Özcan, K. (2009). Sürdürülebilir kentsel korumanın olabilirliği üzerine bir yaklaşım önerisi: Konya tarihi kent merkezi örneği [An approach for the possibility of sustainable urban conservation: Case study for the historic city centre of Konya]. METU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, 26 (2): 1-18.

Pearce, D. and Atkinson, G. (1998). The concept of sustainable development: An evaluation of its usefulness ten years after Brundtland. The Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE) Working Paper PA 98-02.

Pendlebury, J. (1999). The conservation of historic areas in the UK: A case study of “Grainger Town”, Newcastle upon Tyne. Cities, 16 (6): 423-433.

Porter, L., Lombard, M., Huxley, M., Ingin, A. K., Islam, T., Briggs, J., Rukmana, D., Devlin, R., and Watson, V. (2011). Informality, the commons and the paradoxes for planning: Concepts and debates for informality and planning self-made cities: Ordinary informality? The reordering of a Romany neighbourhood the land formalisation process and the peri-urban zone of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania street vendors and planning in Indonesian cities informal urbanism in the USA: New challenges for theory and practice engaging with citizenship and urban struggle through an informality lens. Planning Theory and Practice, 12 (1): 115-153.

Rapoport, A. (1997). The nature and role of neighborhoods. Urban Design Studies, 3: 93-118.

Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Badarulzaman, N. and Jaafar, M. (2011). Achievement to sustainable urban development using city strategies: A comparison between cities alliance and the World Bank definitions. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4 (5): 151-166.

Saleh, M. A. E. (1997). Privacy and communal socialization: The role of space in the security of traditional and contemporary neighborhoods in Saudi Arabia. Habitat International, 21 (2): 167-184.

Scott, J. W. and Liikanen, I. (2010). Civil society and the “neighbourhood” - Reconciling supranational, national and local agendas. Journal of European Integration, 32 (5): 423-438.

Saville-Smith, K. (2008). Neighbourhoods for life. Build, (106): 33-34.

Sey, Y. (2003). Sürdürülebilir kalkınma: Tarihi kültürel mirasın korunması (Vizyon 2023 Öngörü Panelleri-Çevre ve Sürdürülebilir Kalkınma Tematik Paneli). In, Çevre ve sürdürülebilir kalkınma tematik paneli vizyon ve öngörü raporu. Ankara: TÜBİTAK. https://www.tubitak.gov.tr/tubitak_content_files/vizyon 2023/csk/EK-13.pdf, (02.09.2013).

Stanley, B. W. (2012). An historical perspective on the viability of urban diversity: Lessons from socio-spatial identity construction in nineteenth-century Algiers and Cape Town. Journal of Urbanism: International Research on Placemaking and Urban Sustainability, 5 (1): 67-86.

Symes, M. and Pauwels, S. (1999). The diffusion of innovations in urban design: The case of sustainability in the Hulme development guide. Journal of Urban Design, 4 (1): 97-117.

Şahin, M. and Işık, E. (2011). Osmanlı’dan cumhuriyete mahalle yönetimi. [Neighbourhood management from the Ottoman to the republic]. Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, (30): 221-230.

Tatlıgil, F. (2005). Gaziantep kentinin geleneksel konut dokusunun ve sosyo-kültürel yapısındaki değişimin incelenmesi. [An analysis of the transformation in the traditional housing fabric and socio-cultural characteristics of the city of Gaziantep], Unpublished Masters’ Thesis, Yıldız Technical University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Istanbul.

Turkish Statistical Institute (2012). Address based population registration system database. Population of Gaziantep. retrieved from: http://rapor.tuik.gov.tr/reports/rwservlet?adnksdb2&ENVID=adnksdb2Env&report=wa_turkiye_il_koy_sehir.RDF&p_il1=27&p_kod=2&p_yil=2011&p_dil=2&desformat=html, (08.12.2013).

Uğur, H. (2004). Geleneksel şehirsel mekanlar değerlendirme ve korumaları bağlamında sistematik yaklaşım: Gaziantep örneği. [A systematic approach to traditional urban spaces in the context of their evaluations and conservations: Gaziantep example], Unpublished PhD Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Graduate School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Istanbul.

United Nations (2011). 2009-2010 Demographic Yearbook. Sixty-first issue. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, UN Publications, Sales No: B.12.XIII.1H.

United Nations (2002). Report of the world summit on sustainable development. New York: United Nations Publications.

United Nations (2012). United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, 20-22 June 2012, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. http://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20conference.html, (21.11.2013).

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division (UNDESA-PD), (2011). World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, Highlights and Advanced Tables. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.220.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/ Population Division (UNDESA-PD) (2012). World Urbanisation Prospects: The 2011 Revision. CD-ROM Edition.

United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) (2009). Planning sustainable cities: Global report on human settlements 2009. London-Sterling, VA: Earthscan.

United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)

(2012). Sustainable urbanisation in Asia: A source book for local governments.

Ünal, Z. G. (1997). Bilgisayar destekli tarihi çevre koruma bilgi sistemi oluşturulması ve Gaziantep kentsel sit alanında örneklenmesi. [An information system based on integrated conservation approach for the conservation of historical environment: Gaziantep urban conservation area]. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis, Yıldız Technical University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Istanbul.

Warner, M. (2002). Publics and counterpublics. Public Culture, 14 (1): 49-90.

Winston, N. (2009). Urban regeneration for sustainable development: The role of sustainable housing?. European Planning Studies, 17 (12): 1781-1796.

Xing, Y., Horner, M. W., El-Haram, M. A., Bebbington, J. (2009). A framework model for assessing sustainability impacts of urban development. Accounting Forum, 33 (3): 209-224.

Zelenika, I. and Pearce, J. M. (2011). Barriers to appropriate technology growth in sustainable development. Journal of Sustainable Development, 4 (6): 12-22.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.