Spring bloom of the raphidophycean Heterosigma akashiwo in the Golden Horn Estuary at the northeast of Sea of Marmara

Fuat Dursun, Seyfettin Taş, Tufan Koray
1.208 221

Abstract


In the period of February-May 2012, harmful algal blooms (HABs) along with environmental factors were investigated biweekly in the Golden Horn Estuary at the northeast of the Sea of Marmara and a dense bloom of the raphidophyceaen Heterosigma akashiwo (Y.Hada) Y.Hada ex Y.Hara & M.Chihara was observed in late May. H. akashiwo abundance increased gradually from the lower estuary to the upper estuary. The dense bloom of H. akashiwo in late May occurred at the temperature of 20.2°C and salinity of 16.4 psu and its abundance reached to 10.4×106 cells L-1. When compared to mid-May, the mean temperature of surface water increased 4.50°C, while salinity decreased 2.30 psu in late May. Secchi depth values decreased rapidly from the lower to the upper estuary (6.00 m to 0.50 m). It is considered that a rapid increase in temperature, a decrease in salinity, and high nutrient concentrations in combination with low water circulation at the upper estuary were the causes of the bloom of H. akashiwo. Fish mortality or other harmful effects in environment were not observed during the H. akashiwo bloom. But, these events may create a potentially toxic risk for the study area in the future.

Keywords: Golden Horn Estuary, Harmful algal blooms, Heterosigma akashiwo, nutrients, Sea of Marmara

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12714/egejfas.2016.33.3.03

References


American Public Health Association (APHA). (1999). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water. 20th ed., Washington DC, USA, 1325 pp.

Bizsel, N. & Bizsel, K.C. (2002). New records of toxic algae Heterosigma cf. akashiwo and Gymnodinium cf. mikimotoi in the hypereutrophic İzmir Bay (Aegean Sea): Coupling between organisms and water quality parameters. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 50: 33-44. doi: 10.1560/046H-XV7W-7BQQ-TCTX

Branco, S., Menezes, M., Alves-de-Souz, C., Domingos, P., Schramm, M.A. & Proenço, L.A.O. (2014). Recurrent blooms of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) in the Piraquê Channel, Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, southeast Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 74: 529-537. doi: 10.1590/bjb.2014.0074

Bridgers, A., McConell, E., Naar, J., Weidner, A., Tomas, L. & Tomas, C. (2002). Comparison of regional clones of the genus Chattonella and Fibrocapsa for growth characteristic and potential toxin production. Xth International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms 2002, Florida, USA, pp. 37.

Chang, F,. Anderson, H.C. & Boustead, N.C. (1990). First record of a Heterosigma (Raphidophyceae) bloom with associated mortality of cage-reared salmon in Big Glory Bay, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 24: 461-469.

doi: 10.1080/00288330.1990.9516437

Demirel, N. (2015). Ichthyoplankton dynamics in a highly urbanized estuary. Marine Biology Research, 11: 677-688.

doi: 10.1080/17451000.2015.1007873

Deniz, N. & Tas, S. (2009). Seasonal variations in the phytoplankton community in the north-eastern Sea of Marmara and a species list. Journal of Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 89: 269-276.

doi: 10.1017/S0025315409003117

Esenkulova, S. & Luinenburg, O. (2014). Observations of Heterosigma akashiwo bloom and associated wild salmon lethargic behaviour in Cowichan Bay, Canada. Harmful Algae News, 50: 16-18.

Haigh, N. & Esenkulova, S. (2013). Economic losses to British Columbia salmon aquaculture industry due to harmful algal blooms, 2009-2012. PICES Scientific Report, No: 47, pp. 2-6.

Hallegraeff, G.M. (2002). Aquaculturists’ guide to harmful Australian Microalgae. 2nd ed. Tasmania, Australia, 135 pp.

Hallegraeff, G.M., Anderson, D.M. & Cembella, A.D. (2003). Manual on harmful marine microalgae. UNESCO, France, pp. 511-562.

Kempton, J., Kepler, C.J. & Levitus, A. (2008). A novel Heterosigma akashiwo bloom extending from a South Carolina bay to offshore waters. Harmful Algae, 7: 235-240. doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2007.08.003

Keppler, C.J., Hoguet, J., Smith, K., Ringwood, A.H. & Lewitus, A.J. (2005). Sublethal effects of the toxic alga Heterosigma akashiwo on the southeastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Harmful Algae, 4: 275-285. doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2004.05.002

Khan, S., Arakaw, O. & Onoue, Y. (1996). Neurotoxin production by a chloromonad Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 27: 254-263.

doi: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.1996.tb00607.x

Koray, T. (2004). Potentially Toxic and Harmful Phytoplankton Species Along the Coast of the Turkish Seas. Harmful Algae, 2002. In: Steidinger, K.A., Landsberg, J.H., Tomas, C.R. & Vargo, G.A. (Eds.), pp. 335-337. Biogeography and regional events sessions. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO.

Mendez, S.M., Akselman, R. & Tomas, C.R. (2010). First report of Heterosigma akashiwo, Fibrocapsa japonica and Chattonella marina var. antiqua in Uruguay. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Harmful Algae, 1-5 November 2010. Hersonissos, Crete, pp. 123-125.

Orlova, T., Morozova, T., Kameneva, P. & Shevchenko, O. (2010). Harmful algal blooms on the Russian east coast and their possible economic impacts. PICES Scientific Report, No: 47, pp. 41-58.

Parsons T.R., Maita Y. & Lalli C.M. (1984). A manual of chemical and biological methods for seawater analysis. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.

Rensel, J. (2007). Fish kills from the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo in Puget Sound: Recent blooms and review. A technical report. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Sponsored Coastal Ocean Research (CSCOR), 58 pp.

Rensel, J.E., Haigh, N. & Tynan, T.J. (2010). Fraser river sockeye salmon marine survival decline and harmful blooms of Heterosigma akashiwo. Harmful Algae, 10: 98-115. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2010.07.005

Smayda, T.J. (1998). Ecophysiology and bloom dynamics of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae). Physiological Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms. In: Anderson, D.M., Cembella, A.D., & Hallegraeff, G.M. (Eds.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 113-131.

Shikata, T., Yoshikawa, S., Matsubara, T., Tanoue, W., Yamasaki, Y., Shimasaki, Y., Matsuyama, Y., Oshima, Y., Jenkinson, I.R. & Honjo, T. (2008). Growth dynamics of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) in Hakata Bay, Japan. European Journal of Phycology, 43: 395-411. doi:10.1080/09670260801979295

Shimada, M., Murakami, T.H. & Imahayashi, T. (1983). Effects of sea bloom, Chattonella antiqua, on gill primary lamellae of the young yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata. Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica, 16: 232-244. doi: 10.1267/ahc.16.232

Sur, H.I. Okus, E., Sarıkaya, H.Z., Altıok, H., Eroğlu V. & Öztürk, I. (2002). Rehabilitation and water quality monitoring in the Golden Horn. Water Science and Technology, 46: 29-36.

Tas, S. & Okus, E. (2003). The effects of pollution on the distribution of phytoplankton in the surface water of the Golden Horn. Turkish Journal of Marine Sciences, 9: 163-176.

Tas, S., Yilmaz, I.N. & Okus, E. (2009). Phytoplankton as an indicator of improving water quality in the Golden Horn Estuary. Estuaries and Coasts, 32: 1205-1224. doi: 10.1007/s12237-009-9207-3

Tas, S. & Okus, E. (2011). A review on the bloom dynamics of a harmful dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller in the Golden Horn Estuary. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 11: 673-681. doi: 10.4194/1303-2712-v11_4_03

Tas, S. (2015). A prolonged red tide of Heterocapsa triquetra (Ehrenberg) F. Stein (Dinophyceae) and phytoplankton succession in a eutrophic estuary (Turkey). Mediterranean Marine Science, 16: 621-627. doi: 10.12681/mms.1049

Tas S. & Yilmaz I.N. (2015). Potentially harmful microalgae and algal blooms in a eutrophic estuary in the Sea of Marmara (Turkey). Mediterranean Marine Science, 16: 432-443. doi: 10.12681/mms.1042

Taylor, F.J.R. & Haigh, R. (1993). The Ecology of Fish-Killing Blooms of the Chloromonad Flagellate Heterosigma akashiwo in the Strait of Georgia and Adjacent Waters. In: Smayda, T.J., & Shimizu, Y. (Eds.), pp. 705-771. Toxic Phytoplankton Blooms in the Sea. Elsevier, Amsterdam

Tomas, C.R. (1997). Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press: San Diego, USA, 858 pp.

Utermöhl, H. (1958). Zur Vervollkommung der quantitativen Phytoplankton-Methodik. Mitt int Ver Theor Angew Limnologie, 9: 1-38.

Uysal, Z. & Unsal, M. (1996). Spatial distribution of net diatoms along adjacent of different origin. Turkish Journal of Botany, 20: 519-527.

Wang, L., Yan, T. & Zhou, M. (2006). Impacts of HAB species Heterosigma akashiwo on early development of the scallop Argopecten irradians Lamarck. Aquaculture, 255(1-4): 374-383.

doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.11.057

Yu, J., Yang, G. & Tian, J. (2010). The effects of the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo on cultures of Schmackeria inopinus (Copepoda, Calanoida). Journal of Sea Research, 64: 287-294. doi: 10.1016/j.seares.2010.04.002

Zhang, Y., Fu, F.X., Whereat, E., Coyne, K.J. & Hutchins, D.A. (2006). Bottom-up controls on a mixed-species HAB assemblage: A comparison of sympatric Chattonella subsalsa and Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) isolates from the Delaware Inland Bays, USA. Harmful Algae, 5: 310-320. doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2005.09.001