The determination of water quality of Kargı Stream (Antalya, Turkey) in terms of physicochemical parameters

Melek Zeybek, Hasan Kalyoncu
1.347 225


Today available clean water resources have been contaminated by various factors quickly. Determining the ecological characteristics of existing water resources and increasing activities that protect them has gained importance. In this context, physicochemical characteristics of Kargı stream in Antalya province were evaluated and thus its water quality classes were detected. Seven stations were chosen on the stream and water samples were taken from each station with seasonal periods between July 2014- April 2015. Water temperature (°C), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOI5), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 -N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), ortho-phosphate phosphor (PO4-P) and chloride ion (Cl-) measurements of water samples were done. According to the statistical analysis results, EC and Cl- values differed significantly among stations (P<0,05). Water quality of the stream was evaluated using Water Pollution Control Regulation and Klee’s method and in general it has a high quality (unpolluted) or low contaminated (slightly polluted) water quality. However, it has been thought that water quality of the last station in the estuarine zone decreased based on some parameters due to marine influence and recreational arrangements in the area. As result, there is not under intensive polluting threat in spite of some trout farms and settlements in the vicinity of Kargı stream.

Keywords: Water quality, Physicochemical parameters, Kargı Stream, Antalya, Turkey 

Full Text:




Ak, O., Çakmak, E., Aksungur, M., Çavdar, Y., & Zengin, B. (2008). An Example of the Effects of Natural and Anthropologic Activities Carried out on Rivers on Aquatic Ecosystem: Yanbolu River (Arsın, Trabzon) (in Turkish with English abstract). Erciyes University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 24(1-2): 389-400.

Akbulut, M., Kaya, H., Çelik, E.Ş., Odabaşı, D.A., Odabaşı, S. S., & Selvi, K. (2010). Assessment of Surface Water Quality in the Atikhisar Reservoir and Sarıçay Creek (Çanakkale, Turkey). Ecology, 74(19): 139-149. doi: 10.5053/ekoloji.2010.7417

Atalık, A., 2006. Effects of global warming on water resources and agriculture (in Turkish with English abstract). Journal of Science and Utopia, 139: 18-21.

Barlas, M., Yılmaz, F., İmamoğlu, Ö., Akboyun, Ö. (2000). Physical, chemical and biological research on the Yuvarlakçay (Köycegiz-Muğla) (in Turkish). Fisheries Symposium 2000 (pp. 249-265). Sinop, Turkey: Proceedings Book.

Boran, M., & Sivri, N. (2001) Determination the Nutrient and Suspended Solid Mater Loads of Solaklı and Sürmene River (Trabzon, Türkiye) (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 18(3-4): 343-348.

Bulut, V.N., & Tüfekçi, M. (2005). The Determination of Water Quality in Kalyon Stream (Trabzon, Maçka). Turkish Journal of Aquatic Life, 3(4): 377-384.

Chapman, D., & Kimstach, V. (1996). Selection of Water Quality Variables. Water Quality and Assesments-A Guide to Use of Biota, Sediments and Water in Enviromental Monitoring (Second Edition). In D. Chapman (Ed), Chapter 3, UNESCO / WHO/ UNEP. Cambridge: Great Britain at the University Press.

Cirik, S., & Cirik, S. (2008). Limnology (6th edition) (in Turkish). İzmir: Ege University Fisheries Faculty Press.

Çiçek, N. L., & Ertan Ö.O. (2012). Determination of the Water Quality of Köprüçay River (Antalya) According to the Physico-Chemical Parameteres (in Turkish with English abstract). Ecology, 21(84): 54-65. doi: 10.5053/ekoloji.2012.847

Egemen, Ö., & Sunlu, U. (1996). Water Quality (Second Edition) (in Turkish). İzmir: Ege University Press.

EPA. 1997. Volunteer Stream Monitoring: A Methods Manual. (United States Environmental Protection Agency) Erişim Tarihi: 01.12.2015.

Girgin, S., & Kazancı, N. (1994). Researches On Inland Waters of Turkey I. Evaluation of Water Quality of Ankara Stream Using Physico-Chemical and Biological Parameters (in Turkish). Ankara: Özyurt Press.

Göksu, M.Z.L. (2003). Water Pollution (in Turkish). Adana: Çukurova University Fisheries Faculty Press.

Gültekin, F., Ersoy, A. F., Hatipoğlu, E., & Celep, S. (2012). Determination of Water Quality Parameters in Wet Season of Surface Water in Trabzon (in Turkish with English abstract).Ecology, 21(82): 77-88. doi: 10.5053/ekoloji.2011.8211

Höll, K. (1979). Wasser (Untersuchung, Beurteilung, Aufbereitung, Chemie, Bakteriologie, Virologie, Biologie) (6. Auflage) Berlin: de Gruyter.

Jorgensen S.E., & Rast, W. (2007). The Use of Models for Synthesizing Knowledge for Integrating Lake Basin Management and Facilitating Implementation of the World Lake Vision, Lakes and Reservoirs. Research and Management, 12: 3-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1770.2007.00316.x

Kalyoncu, H. (2006). Determination of Water Quality in Isparta Stream According to Physiochemical Parameters and Epilithic Diatome (in Turkish with English abstract). Süleyman Demirel University Journal of Science, 1(1-2): 14-25.

Kalyoncu, H., & Zeybek, M. (2011). An Application of Different Biotic and Diversity Indices For Assessing Water Quality: A Case Study in The Rivers Çukurca and Isparta (Turkey). African Journal Agricultural Research, 6(1): 19-27.

Kaplan, M., & Sönmez, S. (2000). Evaluation of Water Quality and Pollutants of Streams in Belek Special Environmental Protection Area (in Turkish with English abstract). Ecology, 9(34): 21-26.

Kara, C., & Çömlekçioğlu, U. (2004) Investigation of Karacay’s (Kahramanmaraş) Pollution with Biological and Psycho-Chemical Parameters (in Turkish with English abstract). Kahramanmaraş Sütçüimam University Journal of Science and Engineering, 7(1): 1-7.

Karacaoğlu, D. (2006). Determination of pollution level related to epipelic diatoms and benthic macroinvertebrates in Emet Stream (in Turkish with English abstract). Uludağ University Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, PhD thesis.

Karpuzcu, M. (1994). Environmental Pollution and Control (4th edition). İstanbul: Kubbealtı Press.

Kasımoğlu, C., & Yılmaz, F. (2014). Investigation of Some Physical And Chemical Properties of Tersakan stream (Muğla, Turkey). Balıkesir University Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 16(2): 51-67.

Klee, O. (1991). Appied Hydrobiology (Second revised and expanded edition) (in German). Stuttgart-New York: G. Theieme Verlag

Kocataş, A. (2008). Ecology and Environmental Biology (10th edition). İzmir: Ege University Faculty of Science Press.

Kovach, W.L. (1998). MVSP, A Multivariate Statistical Package for Windows, ver. 3.1. Pentraeth, UK: Kovach Computing Services.

Kumbur, H., Özsoy, H.D., & Özer, Z. (2008). Determination of The Effects of Chemicals Used in Agricultural Area on Water Quality in Mersin Province. Ecology, 17(68): 54-58. doi:10.5053/ekoloji.2008.687

Moss, B. (1988). Ecology of Fresh Waters (2nd edition). London: Oxford Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Özgüler, H. 1997. Water, water resources and environmental issues. Ankara: Meteoroloji TMMOB Chamber of Meteorological Engineers Press.

Schmitz, W. (1954). Fundamentals of the investigation of the temperature conditions in the watercourses (in German). Ber.

Limnol. Flusstation, Freudenthal, 6: 29-50.

Schwörbel, J. (1980). Introduction to Limnology (4th edition). Stuttgart: G. Fischer Verlag.

Simić, V. (1996). A Study on the Trgoviski Timok Assesment of River Conditions by Ecological Benthic Fauna Analysis. The Archives of Biological Sciences, 48(3-4): 101-109.

SKKY, (2004). Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation, (TWPCR), 2008. The Regulation of Water Pollution Control. Ministry of Environment and Forestry. Official Newspaper, 31.12.2004 No: 25687.

Stevens, R.J., & Laughlin, R.J. (1994). Determining nitrogen-15 in nitrite or nitrate by producing nitrous oxide. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 58: 1108-1116.

Tanyolaç, J. (2004). Limnology (3rd edition) (in Turkish). Ankara: Hatipoğlu Press.

Taşdemir, M., & Göksu, M.Z.L. (2001). Some Water Quality Criteria of Asi River (Hatay) (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 18(1-2): 55-64.

Topkara, E.T., Özbek, M., Taşdemir, A., Yıldız, S., Balık, S., & Ustaoğlu, M.R. (2011). Determination of Pollution Level of Yuvarlak Stream (Köyceğiz-Muğla) by Using Benthic Macro Invertebrates. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10(9): 1194-1201.

doi: 10.3923/javaa.2011.1194.1201

Tüfekçi, V., Tüfekçi, H., Morkoç, E., Tolun, L., Karakaş, D., Karakoç, F.T., Olgun, A., & Aydöner, C. 2003. The Determination of Toxic Phytoplankton Species in the Ömerli Dam Lake and the Detection of Proposals for Improving Water Quality (in Turkish with English abstract). Final Report No: 50275 02, Tübitak Mam Earth And Marine Sciences Institute: Kocaeli.

Ucun Özel, H., & Gemici, B.T. (2016). Determination of Bartın River Pollution Using the Physical Parameters (in Turkish with English abstract). The Journal of Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, 7(1): 52-58.

UNEP. 2006. Global Environment Outlook.

Uyanık, S., Yılmaz, G., Yeşilnacar, M.I., Aslan, M., & Demir, O. (2005). Rapid assessment of river water quality in Turkey using benthic macroinvertebrates. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 14: 268–272.

Ünlü, A., Çoban, F., & Tunç, S. (2008). Investigation of Lake Hazar Water Quality According to Physical And Inorganic Chemical Parameters (in Turkish with English abstract). Journal of The Faculty of Engineeering and Architecture of Gazi University, 23(1): 119-127.

Verep, B., Serdar, O., Turan, D., Şahin, C. (2005) Determination of Water Quality in terms of Physico-Chemical Structure of the River Iyidere (Trabzon). Ecology, 14(57): 26-35.

Yorulmaz, B. (2006). Determination of The Water Quality of Eşen River (Kocaçay) from Physical, Chemical and Biological Viewpointes (in Turkish with English abstract). Ege University Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science, PhD Thesis.