Investigation of combined effect of zeolite and mercury toxicity on some serum biochemical parameters of Oreochromis niloticus
In the present work, serum biochemical parameters of Oreochromis niloticus were used to assess protective effects of zeolite (Zeo) on toxicity of mercury (Hg). For this purpose fish were exposed to 0.01 and 0.05 mg/L Hg and 0.01 mg/L Hg+0.01 g/L Zeo and 0.05 mg/L Hg+0.05 g/L Zeo for 4 and 21 days. Cortisol, glucose, total protein, sodium, chlorine and potassium levels were measured in blood serum. The statistically significant differences were determined in all analysed parameters of the fish exposed to mercury and mercury+zeolite mixtures. In the mercury alone, levels of cortisol and glucose elevated after the both exposure periods (P˂0.05). The exposures of mercury+zeolite mixtures increased the cortisol level at 4 days and glucose level at 21 days (P˂0.05). At the both exposure periods in the mercury+zeolite mixtures, it not determined significant change in the total protein levels (P˃0.05), while they decreased in higher concentrations of mercury alone (P˂0.05). In the exposure of mercury alone especially in its higher medium concentraion, levels of sodium and chlorine declined, while level of potassium elevated (P˂0.05). On the other hand it was not determined significant alterations in levels of all analysed ions in exposure of mercury and in combination with zeolite (P˃0.05). The results showed that zeolite partially or totally played a protective role against the toxic effect of Hg since the metabolites and ions levels of O. niloticus were higher in the mercury alone than mercury+zeolite mixture.Keywords: Oreochromis niloticus, mercury, zeolite, biochemical parameters
Balasubramanian, J. & Kumar, A. (2013). Effect of sodium arsenite on liver function related enzymes of cat fish Heteropneustes fossilis and its chelation by zeolite. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contamination, 8(2): 53-58. doi: 10.5132/eec.2013.02.008
Barton, B.A. & Iwama, G.K. (1991). Physiological changes in fish from stress in aquaculture with emphasis on the response and effects of corticosteroids. Annual Review of Fish Diseases, 1: 3-26.
Cataldi, E., Di Marco, P., Mandich, A. & Cataudella, S. (1998). Serum parameters of adriatic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii (Pisces: Acipenseriformes): Effects of temperature and stress. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 121A: 351-354.
Chaurasia, M.K. & Jain, S.K. (2006). Natural zeolite mediated mercury toxicity in fish. Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences, 20(2): 303-308.
Chen, C.Y., Wooster, G.S., Getchell, R.G., Bowser, P.R. & Timmons, M.B. (2003). Blood chemistry of healthy, nephrocalcinosis-affected and ozone-treated tilapia in a recirculation system, with application of discriminant analysis. Aquaculture, 218: 89–102.
Cogun, H.Y., Fırat, Ö., Fırat, Ö., Yüzereroğlu, T.A., Gök, G., Kargin, F. & Kötemen, Y. (2012). Protective Effect of selenium against mercury ınduced toxicity on hematological and biochemical parameters of Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, 26(3): 117-122. doi: 10.1002/jbt.20417
Çoğun, H.Y. & Şahin, M. (2013). The effect of lead and zeolite on hematological and some biochemical parameters in Nile fish (Oreochromis niloticus). Current Progress Biological Research, 12: 277-286.
Fergusson, J.E. (1990). The heavy elements: Chemistry, environmental impact and health effects. Pergamon Press, Oxford, p. 16.
Fırat, Ö. & Kargin, F. (2010). Biochemical alterations induced by Zn and Cd individually or in combination in the serum of Oreochromis niloticus. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 36: 647-653.
Fırat, Ö., Cogun, H.Y., Yüzereroğlu, T.A., Gök, G., Fırat, Ö., Kargin, F. & Kötemen, Y. (2011). A comparative study on the effects of a pesticide (cypermethrin) and two metals (copper, lead) to serum biochemistry of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 37: 657-666. doi: 10.1007/s10695-011-9466-3
Gharaei, A., Ghaffari, M., Keyvanshokooh, S. & Akrami, R. (2011). Changes in metabolic enzymes, cortisol and glucose concentrations of Beluga (Huso huso) exposed to dietary methylmercury. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 37: 485-493. doi: 10.1007/s10695-010-9450-3
Ishikawa, N.M., Ranzani-Paiva, M.J.T. & Ferreira, C.M. (2007). Hematological parameters in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-letal concentrations of mercury. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 50(4): 619-626.
Jain, S.K. (1999). Protective role of zeolite on short and long term lead toxicity in the teleost fish Heteropneustes fossilis. Chemosphere, 39(2): 247-251.
James, R. (2000). Effect of zeolite on reduction of cadmium level in water and ımprovement of haematological parameters in Oreochromis mossambicus. Indian Journal of Fisheries, 47: 29-35.
Martinez, F.J., Garcia-Riera, M.P., Canteras, M., De Costa, J. & Zamora, S. (1994). Blood parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Simultaneous influence of various factors. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 107: 95–100.
Misaelides, P. (2011). Application of natural zeolites in environmental remediation: A short review. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 144: 15–18. doi: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2011.03.024
Mishra, M. & Jain, S.K. (2009). Effect of natural ıon exchanger chabazite for remediation of lead toxicity: An experimental study in teleost fish Heteropneustes fossilis. Asian Journal of Experimental Sciences, 23(1): 39-44.
Mommsen, T.P., Vijayan, M.M. & Moon, T.W. (1999). Cortisol in teleosts: dynamics, mechanisms of action, and metabolic regulation. Rev. Journal of Fish Biology, 9: 211–268.
Öner, M., Atli, G. & Canli, M. (2008). Changes in serum biochemical parameters of freshwater fish Oreochromis niloticus following prolonged metal (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn) exposures. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 27: 360–366. doi: 10.1897/07-281R.1
Papaioannou, D., Katsoulos, P.D., Panousis, N. & Karatzias, H. (2005). The role of natural and synthetic zeolites as feed additives on the prevention and/or the treatment of certain farm animal diseases: A review. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 84:161–170. doi:10.1016/j.micromeso.2005.05.030
Rashed, M.N. (2001). Monitoring of environmental heavy metals in fish from Nasser Lake. Environment International, 27: 27-33.
Shakoori, A.R., Aziz, F., Alam, J. & Ali, S.S. (1990). Toxic effects of talastar, a new synthetic pyrethroid, on blood and liver of rabbit. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 23: 289–300.
Taş, M., Demirel, R., Şentürk, D., Kurt, D., Bacinoğlu, S., Cirit, Ü. & Ketani, M.A. (2007). Effects of dietary natural zeolite on the testicular weight, body weight and spermatological characteristics in rats. Journal of The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Istanbul University, 33(3): 33-42.
Wendelaar Bonga, S.E. (1997). The stress response in fish. Physiological Review, 7: 591–625.
Yang, J.L. & Chen, H.C. (2003). Effects of gallium on common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Acute test, serum biochemistry, and erythrocyte morphology. Chemosphere, 53: 877–882. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(03)00657