Şeçilmiş Kitozan Tiplerinden Dağılım Gösteren Submikron Kitozanlarının Formülasyon ve Fizikokimyasal Özellikleri

Noosheen Zahid, Mehdi Maqbool, Asgar Ali
1.884 360

Öz


Dört farklı hazırlık yöntemi kullanarak kitozana dayalı sürdürebilir ve çevre dostu bir çalışma geliştirilmiştir. Bu yöntemler düşük moleküler ağrlıklı kitozan etkisi, orta moleküler ağrılıklı kitozan, yüksek molekül ağırlıklı kitozan ve yerel kitozandan hazırlanan şekilde incelenmiştir. In vitro bulgular düşük ve orta molekül ağırlıklı olan kitozan ve yerel olarak hazırlananların en iyi misel büyüme ve spor çimlenme durdurucu etki gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. İlerleyen çalışmalarda sonikatör aracılığıyla submikron kitozan oluşturmak suretiyle söz konusu iki kitozanın akışkanlığı azaltılmıştır. Her iki submikron dağılımın fizikokimyasal özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Bulgular, bu çalışmada düşük molekül ağırlığındaki kitozanın submikron dağılım için en az enerji gereksinimi olduğunu göstermiştir.

Anahtar kelimeler


Kitozan, submikron dağılım, fizikokimyasal özellikler, spor çimlenmesi

Referanslar


Agnihotri SA, Mallikarjuna NN and Aminabhavi TM., 2004. Recent advances on chitosan-based micro and nanoparticles in drug delivery. Journal of Controlled Release, 100: 5-28.

Al-Hetar MY, Zainal Abidin MA, Sariah M and Wong MY., 2010. Antifungal activity of chitosan against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cubense.Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 120: 2434-2439.

Amselem S and Friedman D., 1998. Submicron emulsions, In drug targeting and delivery; Benita S., Ed.; Harwood Academic Publishers: New York, pp: 153-173.

Andres Y, Giraud L, Gerente C and Le Cloirec P., 2007. Antibacterial effects of chitosan powder: mechanisms of action. Environmental Technology, 24: 1357-1363.

Cronin MJ, Yohalem DS, Harris RF and Andrews JH., 1996. Putative mechanism and dynamics of inhibition of apple scab pathogen Venturia inequalis by compost extracts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28: 1241-1249.

Davis RH., 2011. Effectiveness of Different Molecular Weights and Concentrations of Chitosan on Enteric Viral Surrogates.Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee.

Desai KGH and Park HJ., 2005. Preparation and characterization of drug-loaded chitosan-tripolyphosphate microspheres by spray drying. Drug Development Research, 64: 114-128.

El Ghaouth A, ArulJ, Asselin A and Benhamou N.,1992. Antifungal activity of chitosan on postharvest pathogens: Induction of morphological and cytological alterations in Rhizopus stolonifer. Mycological Research, 96: 769-779.

Freitas C and Müller RH., 1998. Effect of light and temperature on zeta potential and physical stability of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNTM) dispersions. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 168: 221-229.

Guo Z, Chen R, Xing R, Liu S, Yu H, Wang P, Li C and Li P., 2006.Novel derivatives of chitosan and their antifungal activities in vitro. Carbohydrate Research, 341:351-354.

Hejazi R and Amiji M., 2003. Chitosan based gastrointestinal delivery system. Journal of Control Release, 89: 151-165.

Hernández-Lauzardo AN, Bautista-Baños S, Velázquez-del Valle MG, Méndez-Montealvo MG, Sánchez-Rivera MM and Bello-Pérez LA., 2008. Antifungal effects of chitosan with different molecular weights on in vitro development of Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb: Fr.) Vuill. Carbohydrate Polymers, 73: 541-547.

Hirano S and Nagao N., 1989. Effect of chitosan, pectic acid, lysozyme and chitinase on growth of several phytopathgens.Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 53: 3065-3066.

Jafari MS, He Y and Bhandari B., 2007. Production of sub-micron emulsions by ultrasound and microfluidization techniques. Journal of Food Engineering, 82: 478-488.

Jansson D., 2010. Development and characterization of chitosan-plasmid nanoparticles. MSc Thesis, Tampere University of Technology.

Junang L, Aixian J, Guoying Z and Yuanhao H., 2009. Antifungal activity of chitosan against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (ICBBE 2009), Beijing, China. pp. 1-4.

Karbstein H and Schubert H., 1995. Developments in continuous mechanical production of oil-in-water micro-emulsions. Chemical Engineering and Technology, 24: 205-211.

Lagaly G., 1984. Energetische Wechselwirkungen in Dispersionen und Emulsionen. In: Asche, H., Essig, D., Schmidt, P.C. (eds.). Technologie von Salben, Suspensionen und Emulsionen, APV Paperback Series, Vol. 10. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart. pp. 32-61.

Lobo L and Svereika A., 2003. Coalescense during emulsification 2.Role of small molecules surfactants. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 261: 498-507.

Masyahit M, Sijam K, Awang Y and Satar MGM., 2009. The first report of the occurrence of anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.)Penz.& Sacc.on dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp.) in Peninsular Malaysia. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 6: 902-912.

McClements DJ., 2005. Food emulsions in practice. In: McClements, D.J. (ed.). Food Emulsions: Principles, Practices, and Techniques. Boca Raton, CRC Press, pp. 515-543.

McNaught DA and Wilkinson A., 1997. IUPAC compendium of chemical terminology.2nd ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.pp. 464.

Melanie L, Ivey L, Nava-Diaz C and Miller SA., 2004. Identification and management of Colletotrichum acutatum on immature bell peppers.Plant Disease, 88: 1198-1204.

Nitschke J, Altenbach H.J, Malolepszy T and Mölleken H., 2011. A new method for the quantification of chitin and chitosan in edible mushrooms. Carbohydrate Research, 346: 1307-1310.

No HK and Meyers SP., 1997. Preparation of chitin and chitosan. In: Muzzarelli, R.A.A. and Peter, M.G. (eds.). Chitin Handbook. European Chitin Society, Grottammare AP, Italy, pp. 475-489.

Palmateer AJ, Ploetz RC, Santen E and Correll JC., 2007. First report of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Pitaya.Plant Disease, 91: 631-631.

Raafat D, von Bargen K, Haas A and Sahl HG., 2008.Insights into the mode of action of chitosan as an antibacterial compound. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74: 3764-3773.

Rajendran NN, Natrajan R, Kumar RS and Selvaraj S., 2010. Acyclovir-loaded chitosan nanoparticles for ocular delivery.Asian Journal of PharmaceuticalSciences, 4: 220-226.

Riddick TM., 1968. Zeta-Meter Manual. Zeta, New York.

Rinaudo M, Pavlov G and Desbrieres, 1999. Solubilization of chitosan in strong acid medium.International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization, 5: 267-276.

Rusu-Balaita L, Desbrières J and Rinaudo M., 2003. Formation of a biocompatible polyelectrolyte complex: Chitosan-hyaluronan complex stability. PolymerBulletin, 50: 91-98.

Sashai AS and Manocha MS., 1993. Chitinases of fungi and plants: their involvement in morphogenesis and host-parasite interaction. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 11: 317-338.

Schuhmann R., 1995. Physikalische Stabilität parenteraler Fettemulsionen—Entwicklung eines Untersuchungsschemas unter besonderem Aspekt analytischer Möglichkeiten.PhD Thesis.Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin.

Sekiguchi S, Miura Y, Kaneko H, Nishimura SL, Nishi N, Iwase M and Tokura S., 1994.Molecular weight dependency of antimicrobial activity by chitosan oligomers.In: Nishinari K and Doi E. (eds.). Food Hydrocolloids: Structures, Properties, and Functions, pp. 71-76.

Sonneville-Aubrun O, Simonnet JT and L’Alloret F., 2004. Nano-emulsions: A new vehicle for skincare products. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 108-109: 145-149.

Stössel O and Leuba JL., 1984. Effect of chitosan, chitin and some amino sugars on growth of various soil borne phytopathogenic fungi. Journal of Phytopathology, 111: 82-90.

Sutton BC., 1992. The genus Glomerella and its anamorph Colletotrichum.In: Bailey JA and Jeger MJ. (eds.). Colletotrichum Biology, Pathology and Control, CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 402.

Taba S, Mikami D, Takaesu K, Ooshiro A, Moromizato Z, Nakasone S and Kawano S., 2006. Anthracnose of pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Japanese Journal of Phytopathology, 72: 25-27.

Takahashi LM, Rosa DD, Basseto MA, De Souza HG and Furtado EL., 2008. First report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on Hylocereus megalanthus in Brazil.AustralasianPlant Disease Notes, 3: 96-97.

Tikhonov VE, Stepnova EA, Babak VG, Yamskov IA, Palma-Guerrero J, Jansson HB, Lopez-Llorca LV, Salinas J, Gerasimenko DV, Avdienko ID and Varlamov VP., 2006. Bactericidal and antifungal activities of a low molecular weight chitosan and its N-/2(3)-(dodec-2-enyl) succinoyl/-derivatives.Carbohydrate Polymers, 64: 66-72.

Traver T., 2006. Food nanotechnology. A scientific status summary synopsis. Food Technology, 60: 22-26.

Zahid N, Ali A, Manickum S, Siddiqi Y and Maqbool M., 2012. Potential of chitosan loaded nanoemulsions to control different Colletotrichum spp. and maintain quality of tropical fruits during cold storage. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 113: 925-939.

Zahid N, Ali A, Manickum S, Siddiqui Y, Alderson PG and Maqbool M, 2014. Efficacy of curative applications of submicron chitosan dispersions on anthracnose intensity and vegetative growth of dragon fruit plants. Crop Protection, 62: 129-134.

Zhang M, Tan T, Yuan H and Rui C., 2003. Insecticidal and fungicidal activities of chitosan and oligo-chitosan.Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymer, 18: 391-400.