A Case Study of E-tutors' Teaching Practice: Does Technology Drive Pedagogy?

Hsueh-Hua Chuang
3.276 735

Abstract


This article presents a case study of e-tutoring teaching practice during a 20-week e-tutoring program aimed at improving the English proficiency of targeted students. The study revealed what and why certain online tools were used by e-tutors and investigated how different technological proficiency and face-to-face (f2f) teaching experience shaped e-tutorsâ teaching practices in cyberspace. Data were collected through transcriptions of each recorded synchronous Skype teaching session, interviews of e-tutors, project artefacts, and e-tutorsâ weekly memos. Results showed that use of Skype establishes a social presence in e-tutor and e-tutee instructional relationships and that online broadcasting is often equivalent to online teaching for e-tutors who are comfortable and familiar with face-to-face teaching environments. In addition, technology has shaped the teaching practice of e-tutors. This finding implies an adapted framework of technological pedagogical content knowledge for e-tutors to maximise the benefits of the designed online tutoring environments.

Keywords


E-tutoring, TPACK.

Full Text:

PDF (Türkçe)


References


Barker. P (2002): On being an online tutor. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 39(1), 3-13.

Berge, Z.L. (1995). Facilitating computer conferencing: Recommendations from the field. Educational Technology, 35(1), 22-30.

Biocca, F., Harms, C., Gregg, J. (2001). The networked minds measure of social presence: Pilot test of the factor structure and concurrent validity. Paper presented at Presence 2001, October 9-11, Philadelphia, USA.

Chang, W.-C. (2002). Causes of the bimodal phenomena of basic competence test for junior high school students. Entrance Exam Committee News 16. Taiwan: Taipei.

Chuang, H.-H., Yang, Y.-F., & Liu, H.-C. (2009). What digital divide factors matter in the motivation to use technology to learn English? A case of low SES young learners in Taiwan. Advanced Distance Education Technologies, 2009, 721-725.

Denard, H. (2003). E-tutoring and the transformations in online learning. Interactions, 7, 2. Retrieved September 3, 2010, from http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/services/cap/resources/pubs/interactions/archive/issue20/denard

Denis, B., Watland, P., Pirotte, S., & Verday, N. (2004). Roles and competencies of the e-tutor [WWW document]. Retrieved September 3, 2010, from http://www.networkedlearningconference.org.uk/past/nlc2004/proceedings/symposia/symposium6/deni s_et_al.htm

Flowers, A. T. (2007). NCLB spurs growth in online tutoring options. School Reform News, January 1. The Heartland Institute, Chicago, IL. Retrieved July 3, 2007, from http://www.heartland.org/Article.cfm?artId=20426.

Grbich, C. (2007). Qualitative data analysis: An introduction. London: Sage.

Heilbronn, M., & Libby, W. (1973). Comparative effects of technological and social immediacy upon performance and perceptions during a two-person game. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American psychological association, Montreal.

Johnson, G. M., & Bratt, S. E. (2009). Technology education students: e-tutors for school children. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 32-41.

Koehler, M.J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing tpck. AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology (Ed.), The handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (tpck) for educators (pp. 3-29). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Lee, M., & Tsai, C. (2010). Exploring teachers’ perceived self-efficacy and technological pedagogical content knowledge with respect to educational use of the World Wide Web. Instructional Science, 38(1), 1-21. Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. (1985).Naturalistic inquiry. New York: Sage.

Livingstone, S. (2004). Media literacy and the challenge of new information and communication technologies. The Communication Review, 7, 3-14.

Mason, R. (1991). Mason, R. (1991). Moderating educational computer conferencing. DEOSNEWS, 1(19). Retrieved October 7, 2008, from http://www.emoderators.com/papers/mason.html.

McMann, G.W. (1994). The changing role of moderation in computer mediated conferencing. In The proceedings of the distance learning research conference covering the world with educational opportunities (pp.159-166). College Station, TX: Department of Educational Human Resource Development, Texas A & M University.

McPherson, M. A., & Nunes, J. M. B. (2004). The role of tutors as an integral part of online learning support. European Journal of Open and Distance Learning. Retrieved July 29, 2010, from http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2004/Maggie_MsP.html

Miller, S. M., & Miller, K. L. (2000). Theoretical and practical considerations in the design of web-based instruction. In B. Abbey (Ed.). Instructional and cognitive impacts of web-based instruction (pp. 156– 177). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.

Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.

Odeh, S., & Ketaneh, E. (2007). Collaborative Working e-Learning Environments Supported by Rule-Based eTutor. International Journal of Online Engineering (iJOE), 3(4).

Pyle, R. C., & Dziuban, C. D. (2001). Technology: Servant or master of the online teacher? Library Trends, 50(1), 130-144.

Roblyer, M. D., & Doering, A. H. (2010). Integrating educational technology into teaching (5th edition). Boston MA: Ally & Bacon.

Salmon, G. (2004). E-moderating: The key to teaching and learning online: Routledge.

Taylor, J. C. (1995). Distance education technologies: The fourth generation. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 11(2), 1-7.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.