Reliability and Validity Study of the Mobile Learning Adoption Scale Developed Based on the Diffusion of Innovations Theory

Ismail Celik, Ismail Sahin, Mustafa Aydin
4.450 1.252

Abstract


In this study, a mobile learning adoption scale (MLAS) was developed on the basis of Rogers’ (2003) Diffusion of Innovations Theory. The scale that was developed consists of four sections. These sections are as follows: Stages in the innovation-decision process, Types of m-learning decision, Innovativeness level and attributes of m-learning. There is one question at the level of classification regarding the investigated characteristics of the participants in the first three sections of the scale. The last section of the scale is composed of 18 items and 5 sub-dimensions in the 7-item Likert type. MLAS was developed in three stages. In the first stage, a detailed review of literature was performed and an item pool was formed. In the second stage, explanatory factor analysis was performed to determine the factor structure of the scale while confirmatory factor analysis was performed to test whether the factors formed confirmed the theory or not. In the final stage of the study, the reliability of the scale was determined through item, test-retest reliability and internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha) analyses. In conclusion, the scale developed within the scope of this study was shown to yield valid and reliable scores.


Keywords


Adoption of m-Learning, Diffusion of Innovations Theory, Scale development.

Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18404/ijemst.65217

References


Agarwal, R., & Prasad, J. (1997). The role of innovation characteristics and perceived voluntariness in the acceptance of information technologies. Decision sciences, 28(3), 557-582.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Akour, H. (2009). Determinants of mobile learning acceptance: an empirical investigation in higher education (Doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University).

Attewell, J. (2005, October). From research and development to mobile learning: Tools for education and training providers and their learners. In 4th World Conference on mLearning (pp. 1-6).

Benbasat, I., & Barki, H. (2007). Quo vadis, TAM?. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 8(4). Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Veri Analizi El Kitabı (Onaltıncı baskı). Ankara: PegemA Yayıncılık.

Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö.E., Karadeniz, Ş., & Demirel, F. (2011). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemleri (12.baskı). Ankara: PegemA Yayıncılık.

Chen, N. S., Wei, C. W., & Yang, S. J. (2008). Designing a Self-contained Group Area Network for Ubiquitous Learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 11(2).

Cheon, J., Lee, S., Crooks, S. M., & Song, J. (2012). An investigation of mobile learning readiness in higher education based on the theory of planned behavior. Computers & Education, 59(3), 1054-1064.

Clough, G., Jones, A. C., McAndrew, P., & Scanlon, E. (2008). Informal learning with PDAs and smartphones. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24(5), 359-371.

Colazzo, L., Ronchetti, M., Trifonova, A., & Molinari, A. (2003). Towards a multi-vendor mobile learning management system. In World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education (Vol. 2003, No. 1, pp. 2097-2100).

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS quarterly, 319-340.

Donaldson, R. L (2011). Student acceptance of mobile learning. The Florida State University College of Communication & Information (Doctoral dissertation, The Florida State University).

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research.

Geddes, S. J. (2004). Mobile learning in the 21st century: benefit for learners. Knowledge Tree e-journal, 30(3), 214-2

Hsu, T. Y., Ke, H. R., & Yang, W. P. (2006). Knowledge-based mobile learning framework for museums. Electronic Library, The, 24(5), 635-648.

Huang, J. H., Lin, Y. R., & Chuang, S. T. (2007). Elucidating user behavior of mobile learning: A perspective of the extended technology acceptance model. Electronic Library, The, 25(5), 585-598.

Hwang, G. J., & Tsai, C. C. (2011). Research trends in mobile and ubiquitous learning: A review of publications in selected journals from 2001 to 2010. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(4), E65-E70.

Kevrekidis, P., Skapinakis, P., Damigos, D., & Mavreas, V. (2008). Adaptation of the Emotional Contagion Scale (ECS) and gender differences within the Greek cultural context. Annals of general psychiatry, 7(1), 14.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford press.

Kneebone, R., Nestel, D., Ratnasothy, J., Kidd, J., & Darzi, A. (2003). The use of handheld computers in scenario-based procedural assessments. Medical teacher, 25(6), 632-642.

Kuşkonmaz H., (2011). İlköğretim Okullarındaki Öğretmenlerin Mobil Öğrenmeye Yönelik Algı Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi. Bahçeşehir Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Bilgi Teknolojileri Bölümü. Yüksek Lisans Tezi

Li, Y., & Sui, M. (2011). Literature Analysis of Innovation Diffusion. Technology & Investment, 2(3).

Liaw, S. S., Hatala, M., & Huang, H. M. (2010). Investigating acceptance toward mobile learning to assist individual knowledge management: Based on activity theory approach. Computers & Education, 54(2), 446-4

Liaw, S. S., Hatala, M., & Huang, H. M. (2010). Investigating acceptance toward mobile learning to assist individual knowledge management: Based on activity theory approach. Computers & Education, 54(2), 446-4

Liu, Y., Li, H., & Carlsson, C. (2010). Factors driving the adoption of m-learning: An empirical study. Computers & Education, 55(3), 1211-1219.

Mahat, J., Ayub, A. F. M., & Luan, S. (2012). An Assessment of Students’ Mobile Self-Efficacy, Readiness and Personal Innovativeness towards Mobile Learning in Higher Education in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 64, 284-290.

Male, G. & Pattinson, C. (2011). Enhancing the quality of e-learning through mobile technology. Campus-Wide Information Systems 28(5), 331-344.

Medlin, B. D. (2001). The factors that may influence a faculty member's decision to adopt electronic technologies in instruction (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University). Moore, G. C., & Benbasat, I. (1991). Development of an instrument to measure the perceptions of adopting an information technology innovation. Information systems research, 2(3), 192-222.

Nassuora, A. B. (2012). Students acceptance of mobile learning for higher education in Saudi Arabia. American Academic & Scholarly Research Journal, 4(2), 24-30.

Ng, W., & Nicholas, H. (2013). A framework for sustainable mobile learning in schools. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(5), 695-715.

Özdamar, K. N. (2011). Akademisyenler için bir mobil öğrenme sisteminin geliştirilmesi ve sınanması, Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Eskişehir Anadolu Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü.

Parisot, A. H. (1995). Technology and teaching: The adoption and diffusion of technological innovations by a community college faculty (Doctoral dissertation, Montana State University).

Park, S. Y., Nam, M. W., & Cha, S. B. (2012). University students' behavioral intention to use mobile learning: Evaluating the technology acceptance model. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(4), 59260

Pinkwart, N., Hoppe, H. U., Milrad, M., & Perez, J. (2003). Educational scenarios for cooperative use of Personal Digital Assistants. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19(3), 383-391.

Rogers, E. M. (1983). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.

Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.

Sahin, I. (2011). Development of Survey of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK). Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(1).

Sahin, I., & Thompson, A. (2006). Using Rogers' Theory to Interpret Instructional Computer Use by COE Faculty. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(1).

Sherry, L., & Gibson, D. (2002). The path to teacher leadership in educational technology. Contemporary issues in technology and teacher education, 2(2), 178-203.

Smİrdal, O., & Gregory, J. (2003). Personal Digital Assistants in medical education and practice. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 19(3), 320-329.

Suhr, D. D. (2006). Exploratory or confirmatory factor analysis? (pp. 200-31). Cary: SAS Institute.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Experimental designs using ANOVA. Thomson/Brooks/Cole.

Traxler, J. (2007). Defining, Discussing, and Evaluating Mobile Learning: The moving finger writes and having writ…. International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning, 8(2).

Venkatesh, V., & Davis, F. D. (2000). A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: four longitudinal field studies. Management science, 46(2), 186-204.

Wagner, E. D. (2005). Enabling mobile learning. EDUCAUSE review, 40(3), 41-42.

Wang, Y. S., Wu, M. C., & Wang, H. Y. (2009). Investigating the determinants and age and gender differences in the acceptance of mobile learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(1), 92-118.

Waycott, J., Jones, A., & Scanlon, E. (2005). PDAs as lifelong learning tools: an activity theory based analysis. Learning, Media and Technology, 30(2), 107-130.

Wei-Han Tan, G., Ooi, K. B., Sim, J. J., & Phusavat, K. (2012). Determinants of mobile learning adoption: an empirical analysis. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 52(3).

Woodill, G. (2010). The mobile learning edge: Tools and technologies for developing your teams. McGraw Hill Professional.

Yılmaz Y., (2011).Mobil Öğrenmeye Yönelik Lisansüstü Öğrencilerinin Ve Öğretim Elemanlarının Farkındalık Düzeylerinin Araştırılması. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü. Yayınlanmış Yüksek Lisans Tezi




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.