The Impact of Qualified Children’s Books on Students’ Ability to Use Cognitive Functions
Qualified children’s books are high-qualified learning materials constructed in accordance with children’s development levels. This study attempted to investigate the impacts of qualified children’s books on children’s skills such as explaining, comparing, interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, and inferring. To this end, a pretest–posttest model was employed in the present study with two groups each of which consisted of 25 students in 2015 spring semester. The Test on the Use of Cognitive Competencies, comprising 25 questions, was employed to determine the cognitive skills of the experimental and control group students. In the end, a posttest was administered to both the experimental and control groups. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA, t-test, arithmetic mean, and standard deviation techniques. In light of the research findings, this study offers some suggestions for parents, teachers, and school administrators regarding the selection of quality children’s books.
Key words: Cognitive function, inference, reading comprehension, reflective thinking
Alpay, M. (1987). Ya-Pa Okul Öncesi Eğitim Semineri. İstanbul: Ya-Pa Yayınları.
Anderson, R.C. & Pearson, P.D. (1984). A schema-theoretic view of basic processes in reading comprehension. In P.D. Pearson (Ed.). Handbook of reading research (pp. 255-293).. New York: Longman.
Barkley, R.A. (1990). Attention deﬁcit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: The Guildford.
Bruner, J. (1968). Toward a theory of instruction. New York: W. W. Norton and Company Inc.
Burns, M.S. & Kidd, J.K. (2010). Learning and cognition in education learning to read. George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA: Elsevier.
Cizek, G.J., Webb, L.C. & Kalohn, J.C. (1993). The use of cognitive taxonomies in licensure and certification test development: Reasonable or customary? Paper Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta.
Corrigana, R. & Surber, J.R. (2010). The reading level paradox: Why children's picture books are less cohesive than adult books. Discourse Processes, 47:32-54.
İrkin, A. Ç. (2012). Çocukların Gelişim Süreci ve Televizyonun Etkileri. Ankara: T.C. Radyo ve Televizyon Üst Kurulu
Dickinson, D.K. & Snow, C.E. (1987). Interrelationships among prereading and oral language skills in kindergartners from two social classes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 2 (1):1-25
Dilidüzgün, S. (2003). Çağdaş Çocuk Yazını: Yazın Eğitimine Atılan İlk Adım. İstanbul: Morpa Kültür.
Dole, J.A., Duffy, G.G., Roehler, L.R. & Pearson, P.D. (1991). Moving from the old to the new: Research on reading comprehension instruction. Review of Educational Research, 61(2): 239-264
Erden, M. & Akman, Y. (1997). Gelişim Öğrenme Öğretme: Eğitim Psikolojisi. Ankara: Arkadaş.
Fang, Z. (1996). Illustration, text, and the child reader: What are pictures in children’s storybooks for? Reading Horizons, 37:130–142.
Garner, R. & Alexander, P.A. (1989). Metacognition: Answered and unanswered questions. Educational Psychologist, 24(2):143-158.
Goldman, S., Varma, K.O. & Sharp, D. (1999). Cognition and technology group at Vanderbilt: Children’s understanding of complex stories; ıssues of reprenetatıon and assesment. In Goldman, S.G., Grasser, A.C. & van den Broek (Eds.) Narrative comprehension, cousality an coherence (pp.135-160) Mahwah, NJ:Lavrence Erlbaum Associates.
Graesser, A., Singer, M. & Trabasso, T. (1994). Constructing inferences during narrative comprehension.Psychological Review, 101: 371–395.
Green, L., Condy, J. & Chigona, A. (2012). Developing the language of thinking within a classroom community of inquiry: pre-service teachers’ experiences. South African Journal of Education, 32: 319-330.
Hall, S. (1990). Cultural identity and diaspora. In J.Rutherford (Eds.). Identity: community, culture, difference. London: Lawrence & Stuart.
Karatay, H. (2010). İlköğretim Öğrencilerinin Okuduğunu Kavrama ile İlgili Bilişsel Farkındalıkları. Türklük Bilimi Araştırmaları Dergisi (TUBAR), 25: 457-475.
Keçik, İ. & Uzun, L. (2003). Türkçe Yazılı ve Sözlü Anlatım. Eskişehir: Anadolu Üniversitesi.
Kintsch, W. & Kintsch, E. (2005). Comprehension. In S. Stahl & S. Paris (Eds.) Children’s reading comprehension and assessment (pp. 71–92). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kintsch, W. (1998). Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. New York: Cambridge University.
Kintsch, W. & Vipond, D. (1979). Reading comprehension and readablity in educational practice and psychological theory. In C.G. Nilsson (Ed). Perspectives of memory research (pp.325-366). Hillsade NJ: Erlbaum.
Meadows, S. (1993). The child as thinker. London: Routledge.
MEB (2006). İlköğretim Türkçe Dersi Öğretim Programı ve Kılavuzu (6, 7, 8.Sınıflar). Ankara: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı
Meyer, B.J.F. (1975). The organisation of prose and its effects on memory. Amsterdam: Nort-Holland.
Morrow, L.M. & Gambrell, L.B. (2001). Literature-based instruction in the early years. In SB Neuman & DK Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook of early literacy research (pp.348-360). New York: Guilford.
Norton, D.E. (1999). Through the eyes of child an introductiıon to children’s literatüre. 5th edition New Jersey: Simon & Shuster/A viacom company.
Oostendorp, H. V. & Goldman, S.R. (1999). The construction of mental representations during reading. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Rasinski, T. & Padak, N. (2000). Effective reading strategies: Teaching children who find reading difficult (2nd ed.). Ohio: Merrill-Prentice Hall.
Raymond, M. (1993). The effects of strategis training on recall of expository prose for university students reading Frech as a second language. The Modern Language Journall 77: 445-485.
Senemoğlu, N. (2013). Gelişim Öğrenme ve Öğretim Kuramdan Uygulamaya. Ankara: Pegem.
Sever, S. (2013). Çocuk Edebiyatı ve Okuma Kültürü. İzmir: Tudem.
Sever, S. & Aslan, C. (2008). “Eleştirel Düşünme Becerisini Kazandırma Bağlamında Çocuk Edebiyatı Yapıtlarının İşlevi Üzerine Bir Çözümleme” VI. ulusal çocuk kültürü kongresi, Türkiye’de çocuk yetiştirme, yaklaşımlar, yöntemler, sorunlar, çözümler. Ankara Üniversitesi Çocuk Kültürü Araştırma ve Uygulama Merkezi, 13-15 Ekim.
Slater, W. & Graves, M. (1989). Research on expository text: Implications for teachers. In K.D. Muth (Ed.), Children's comprehension of text. Newark, DE:IRA, 140-166.
Snow, C., Barnes, W., Chandler, J., Goodman, I. & Hemphill, L. (1991). Unfulfilled expectations:Home and school ınfluences on literacy. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University.
Spiro, R.J. & Myers, A. (1984). Individual differences and underlying cognitive processes in reading. In P. David Pearson (ed.). Handbook of reading research (pp. 471-501). New York: Longman.
Staden, S. & Bosker, R. (2014). Factors that affect South African reading literacy achievement: evidence from prePIRLS 2011. South African Journal of Education, 34(3): 838-847.
Stotsky, S. (1983). Research on reading/writing relationships: A synthesis and suggested directions. Language Arts, 60: 627–643.
Trabasso, T. & van den Broek, P. (1984). Causal thinking and the representation of narrative events. Journal of Memory and Language, 24: 612–630
van den Broek, P. (1997). Discovering the cement of the universe: The development of event comprehension from childhood to adulthood. In P. Broek van den, PJ Bauer & T Bourg (Eds.). Developmental spans in event comprehension and representation (pp. 321–342). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
van Dijk, T.A. & Kintsch, W. (1983). Strategies of discourse comprehension. New York: Academic.
Zimmerman, L. & Smit, B. (2014). Profiling classroom reading comprehension development practices from the PIRLS 2006 in South Africa. South African Journal of Education, 34(3): 962-971.