Change in Physicochemical, Microbiological and Textural Properties of Raw Milk White Cheese During Ripening: Effect of Thyme and Garlic Aromatic Waters
In the present study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of brine solutions containing thyme and garlic extracts on physicochemical, microbiological and textural properties of Turkish white cheese made from raw milk during ripening. For this aim, garlic aromatic water (GAW), thyme hydrosol (TH) or their mixture (1:1 v/v) were incorporated into the brine with different salt concentrations (10%, 13% and 16%) at the ratio of 10% and used in the cheese ripening for 90 days. Addition of TH and GAW into the brine caused higher acidity and lower pH values while increase in salt level resulted in higher dry matter (DM) of cheese. Counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB), yeast-mold (YM), lactoccocci and lactobacilli were fluctuatingly influenced from brine combinations while coagulase (+) staphylococci was completely inhibited during the ripening. In general, TH, GAW or their mixture increased hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the cheese at the 1st day while cohesiveness, resilience and springiness values were not significantly (P>0.05) affected.
Tam metin:PDF (English)
Akın, N., Aydemir, S., Koçak, C. and Yildiz, M. A. 2003. Changes of free fatty acid contents and sensory properties of white pickled cheese during ripening. Food Chem. 80, 77-83.
Bachmann, H. P. and Spahr, U. 1995. The fate of potentially pathogenic bacteria in Swiss hard and semihard cheeses made from raw milk. J. Dairy Sci. 78, 476-483.
Brooks, J. C., Martinez, B., Stratton, J., Bianchini, A., Krokstrom, R. and Hutkins, R. 2012. Survey of raw milk cheeses for microbiological quality and prevalence of foodborne pathogens. Food Microbiol. 31, 154-158.
Burt, S. 2004. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods—a review. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 94, 223-253.
Casalta, E., Sorba, J.-M., Aigle, M. and Ogier, J.-C. 2009. Diversity and dynamics of the microbial community during the manufacture of Calenzana, an artisanal Corsican cheese. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 133, 243-251.
D’amico, D. J. and Donnelly, C. W. Microbiological quality of raw milk used for small-scale artisan cheese production in Vermont: Effect of farm characteristics and practices. J. Dairy Sci. 93, 134-147.
El-Aziz, M. A., Mohamed, S. H., Seleet, F. L. and Al, M. 2015. Effect of brine solution containing ginger extracts on the properties of Egyptian white brined chese. Am. J. Food Technol. 10, 37-47.
El-Aziz, M. A., Mohamed, S. H. S. and Seleet, F. L. 2012. Production and evaluation of soft cheese fortified with ginger extract as a functional dairy food. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 62, 77-83.
Fernandez-Garcia, E., Carbonell, M. and Nunez, M. 2002. Volatile fraction and sensory characteristics of Manchego cheese. 1. Comparison of raw and pasteurized milk cheese. J. Dairy Res. 69, 579-593.
Gammariello, D., DI Giulio, S., Conte, A. and Del Nobile, M. A. 2008. Effects of natural compounds on microbial safety and sensory quality of fior di latte cheese, a typical Italian cheese. J. Dairy Sci. 91, 4138-4146.
Gelsomino, R., Vancanneyt, M., Cogan, T. M., Condon, S. and Swings, J. 2002. Source of Enterococci in a farmhouse raw-milk cheese. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 3560-3565.
Guinee, T. P. and Fox, P. F. 1993. Salt in Cheese: Physical, Chemical and Biological Aspects. In Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology, (FOX, P. F., ed.) pp. 257-302, Springer US.
Hayaloglu, A., A., Fox, P., F., Guven, M. and Cakmakci, S. 2007. Cheeses of Turkey: 1. Varieties ripened in goat-skin bags. Lait, 87, 79-95.
Hayaloglu, A. A. and Fox, P. F. 2008. Cheeses of Turkey: 3. Varieties containing herbs or spices. Dairy Sci. Technol. 88, 245-256.
ISO. 2008. Cheese–Determination of fat content–Van Gulic method (Reference Method) International Standards Organization, Leusden, the Netherlands.
Jakobsen, R. A., Heggebø, R., Sunde, E. B. and Skjervheim, M. 2011. Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in Norwegian raw milk cheese production. Food Microbiol. 28, 492-496.
Jayarao, B. M., Donaldson, S. C., Straley, B. A., Sawant, A. A., Hegde, N. V. and Brown, J. L. 2006. A Survey of foodborne pathogens in bulk tank milk and raw milk consumption among farm families in Pennsylvania. J. Dairy Sci. 89, 2451-2458.
Kasimoğlu, A., Göncüoğlu, M. and Akgün, S. 2004. Probiotic white cheese with Lactobacillus acidophilus. Int. Dairy J. 14, 1067-1073.
Kurt, A., Çakmakçi, S. and Çağlar, A. 1996. Analysis and examination methods for dairy products guidebook, Atatürk University Agricultural Faculty Publications, Erzurum, Turkey.
Leuschner, R. G. K. and Ielsch, V. 2003. Antimicrobial effects of garlic, clove and red hot chilli on Listeria monocytogenes in broth model systems and soft cheese. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 54, 127-133.
Licón, C. C., Carmona, M., Molina, A. and Berruga, M. I. 2012. Chemical, microbiological, textural, color, and sensory characteristics of pressed ewe milk cheeses with saffron (Crocus sativus L.) during ripening. J. Dairy Sci. 95, 4263-4274.
Lindqvist, R., Sylvén, S. and Vågsholm, I. 2002. Quantitative microbial risk assessment exemplified by Staphylococcus aureus in unripened cheese made from raw milk. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 78, 155-170.
Madadlou, A., Khosrowshahi ASL, A., Mousavi, M. E. and Farmani, J. 2007. The influence of brine concentration on chemical composition and texture of Iranian White cheese. J. Food Eng. 81, 330-335.
Manolopoulou, E., Sarantinopoulos, P., Zoidou, E., Aktypis, A., Moschopoulou, E., Kandarakis, I. G. and Anifantakis, E. M. 2003. Evolution of microbial populations during traditional Feta cheese manufacture and ripening. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 82, 153-161.
Masoud, W., Vogensen, F. K., Lillevang, S., Abu Al-Soud, W., Sørensen, S. J. and Jakobsen, M. 2012. The fate of indigenous microbiota, starter cultures, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus aureus in Danish raw milk and cheeses determined by pyrosequencing and quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 153, 192-202.
Morgan, F., Bonnin, V., Mallereau, M. P. and Perrin, G. 2001. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes during manufacture, ripening and storage of soft lactic cheese made from raw goat milk. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 64, 217-221.
Moshtaghi, H. and Mohamadpour, A. A. 2007. Incidence of Listeria spp. in raw milk in Shahrekord, Iran. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 4, 107-110.
Ocak, E., Javidipour, I. and Tuncturk, Y. 2015. Volatile compounds of Van Herby cheeses produced with raw and pasteurized milks from different species. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52, 4315-4323.
Öner, Z., Gül Karahan, A. and Aloğlu, H. 2006. Changes in the microbiological and chemical characteristics of an artisanal Turkish white cheese during ripening. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 39, 449-454.
Ozturk, I., Tornuk, F., Sagdic, O. and Kisi, O. 2012. Application of non-linear models to predict inhibition effects of various plant hydrosols on Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on fresh-cut apples. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 9, 607-616.
Randazzo, C. L., Torriani, S., Akkermans, A. D. L., De Vos, W. M. and Vaughan, E. E. 2002. Diversity, dynamics, and activity of bacterial communities during production of an artisanal Sicilian cheese as evaluated by 16S rRNA analysis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 1882-1892.
Romeih, E. A., Michaelidou, A., Biliaderis, C. G. and Zerfiridis, G. K. 2002. Low-fat white-brined cheese made from bovine milk and two commercial fat mimetics: chemical, physical and sensory attributes. Int. Dairy J. 12, 525-540.
Rudolf, M. and Scherer, S. 2001. High incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in European red smear cheese. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 63, 91-98.
Toufeili, I. and Özer, B. 2007. Brined Cheeses from the Middle East and Turkey. In Brined Cheeses, pp. 188-210, Blackwell Science Ltd.
Tunick, M. H., K. L. Mackey, J. J. Shieh, P. W. Smith, P. Cooke and E. L. Malin, 1993. Rheology and microstructure of low-fat Mozzarella cheese. Int. Dairy J. 3: 649-662.
Turkish Food Codex. 2015. Türk Gıda Kodeksi Peynir Tebliği, Resmi Gazete, 8 Şubat 2015. Sayı 29261. Başbakanlık Basımevi, Ankara.
Verdier-Metz, I., V. Michel, C. Delbes and M.-C. Montel, 2009. Do milking practices influence the bacterial diversity of raw milk? Food Microbiol. 26: 305-310.
Watkinson, P., C. Coker, R. Crawford, C. Dodds, K. Johnston, A. Mckenna and N. White, 2001. Effect of cheese pH and ripening time on model cheese textural properties and proteolysis. Int. Dairy J. 11: 455-464.
Yoon, Y., S. Lee and K.-H. Choi, 2016. Microbial benefits and risks of raw