Effect of Cooking Method on the Proximate, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus
The proximate, amino acid and fatty acid compositions of the fillet and oil from Clarias gariepinus (Catfish) and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia) were determined. The moisture content ranged from 76.27 % for catfish to 79.97 % for tilapia while the oil content ranged from 7.80 % for tilapia and 11.00 % for catfish. Ash content was in the range 8.03 – 9.16 % and the protein content was 15.83 - 18.48 %. Cooking – boiling, roasting or frying – resulted in a variation in the nutrient composition but with no significant effect on the amino acid composition except for the samples fried with palm oil which resulted in significantly reduced essential amino acids contents. All the fish samples – both fresh and processed – have amino acid scores less than 100, with lysine, threonine and the sulphur-containing amino acids being among the limiting amino acids. Both fish samples contain more unsaturated than saturated fatty acids.
Oluwaniyi OO, Dosumu OO. Preliminary Studies on the effect of processing methods on the quality of three commonly consumed marine fishes in Nigeria. Biokemistri 2009; 21(1):1-7. http://www.bioline.org.br/request?bk09001
Federal Office of Statistics. Nigerian Fish Production by Sectors. Lagos 1990. Nigerian Government Printers. Nigeria. 40.
Oluwaniyi OO, Dosumu OO, Awolola GV. Effect of local processing methods (boiling, frying and roasting) on the amino acid composition of four marine fishes commonly consumed in Nigeria. Food Chemistry 2010; 123: 1000–1006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.05.051
Osibona AO, Kusemiju K, Akande GR. Fatty acid composition and amino acid profile of two freshwater species, African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Tilapia zillii). Afri. Jour. Food Agr. Nutr. Dev. (AJFAND) 1990; 9(1): 608 – 621. http://www.ajfand.net/Volume9/No1/Adesola2965.pdf
Pearson D, Cox HE. The Chemical Analysis of Foods (7th edition) Churchill Livingstone. 1976. 575 p. ISBN: 0443014116, 9780443014116
United Nations Food & Agriculture Organization, Nutritional elements of fish. FAO, Rome. 2005.
Ackman RG. Seafood lipids and fatty acids. Food Reviews International. 1990; 6 (4): 617-646. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/87559129009540896
Federal Department of Fisheries, Abuja Nigeria. 3rd Edition. Publisher Fisheries Statistics of Nigeria. 2004; 45.
Afolabi AO, Arawomo OA, Oke OL. Quality changes of Nigerian traditionally processed fresh water fish species I. Nutritive and organoleptic changes. J. Food Techno. 1984; 19: 333-340. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1984.tb00356.x
Hecht J, Oellermann L, Verheust L. Perpectives on clariid catfish culture in Africa. Aquat. Living Resour. 1996; 9: 197-206 (Hors Serie). www.alr-journal.org/articles/alr/pdf/1996/05/alr96hs16.pdf
Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), Vols. I and II, Association of Analytical Chemists, Arlington. 1994.
FAO/WHO Protein quality evaluation. Report of joint FAO/WHO expert consultation. FAO food and nutrition paper 51. 1991. Italy: Rome.
FAO/WHO Energy and protein requirements. Technical report series no. 522. 1973. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Alsmeyer RH, Cunningham AE, Hapich ML. (1974). Equations predict PER from amino acid analysis. Food Technology 1974; 28: 34–38. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201303166075
Adeyeye EI. Amino acid composition of three species of Nigerian fish: Clarias anguillaris, Oreochromis niloticus and Cynoglossus senegalensis. Food Chemistry 2009; 113(1), 43–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.007
Elagba Mohamed HA, Rabie A, Mohammed MH. Proximate composition, amino acid and mineral contents of five commercial Nile fishes in Sudan. Afri. Jour. Food Sci. 2010; 4(10): 650 – 654. http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380732813_Elagba%20et%20al.pdf
Ogbonnaya C, Ibrahim MS. Effects of drying methods on proximate compositions of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) World Jour. of Agr. Sci. 2009; 5(1): 114 – 116. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.415.5187&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Piggott GM, Tucker BW. Seafood: Effects of technology on nutrition.CRC Press New York, USA. 1990. 384 p. ISBN: 0824779223, 9780824779221
Candela M, Astiasaran I, Bello J. Deep-fat frying modifies high fat fish lipid fraction. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1998; 46: 2793 – 2796. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf9709616
Ismail A, Hainida E, Ikram K. Effects of cooking practices (boiling and frying) on the protein and amino acids contents of four selected fishes. Nutrition and Food Science 2004; 34(2): 54–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00346650410529005
Burger IH, Walters CL. The effect of processing on the nutritive value of flesh foods. Symposium on the effect of processing on the nutritive value of food held on 10th November 1972. Proceedings of Nutrition Society 1973; 32: 1–8. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PNS19730002
Bowman WC, Rand MJ. Textbook of pharmacology (2nd. Ed.) Wiley - Blackwell Oxford. 1991. 1928 p. ISBN: 0632099909, 978-0632099900
Gibson RA. Australian fish – an excellent source of both arachidonic acid and 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 1983; 18:743-752. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02534631
Connor WE. The beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids: cardiovascular diseases and neurodevelopment. Current Opinion in Lipidology 1997; 8: 1-3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9127702
Burr ML. Fish and cardiovascular system. Progress in Food and Nutrition Science 1989; 13: 291-316. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2699044
Sargent JR. Fish oils and human diet. British Journal of Nutrition 1997; 78 (Suppl. 1): S5-S13 http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/BJN19970131
Abd Rahnan S, Teh SH, Osman H, Daud NM. Fatty acid composition of some Malaysian fresh water fish. Food Chemistry 1995; 54: 45-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(95)92660-C
J. Turk. Chem. Soc., Sect. A: Chem.