CONCENTRATION OF SKIM MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS BY FORWARD OSMOSIS

Ayça Hasanoğlu, Kübra Gül
1.163 159

Abstract


The concentration of liquid foods such as fruit-vegetable juices and milk by removing its water content is an important chemical process in terms of concentration of food nutrition, shelf-life and stability extension, decrease of the bacterial activities and cost reduction of transportation and storage. Milk can be consumed as concentrated milk by removing its water content at certain rates. Eliminating the water content in milk at certain proportions is also an essential step during several dairy product manufacture processes such as cheese, yogurt and milk powder production. In this study, milk concentration is carried out by means of forward osmosis using membrane contactors as an alternative process to conventional evaporation processes. In this process milk is circulated through the shell side of the hydrophobic membrane contactor while a draw solution of CaCl2 is circulated through the lumen side. Thus water is transferred from the milk solution to the brine solution because of the activity difference between these two solutions. In forward osmosis the effect of process parameters such as feed and draw solution rates, draw solution concentration, temperature on water fluxes was investigated and it was found that water can be removed efficiently and rapidly using this process. The concentration was carried out until the milk volume reduced in half and flux values at investigated process conditions were found to be in the range of 155-387 ml. h-1 m-2 .

 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Van Den Berg J. C. T.. Evaporated and condensed milk. In: Milk Hygiene, A monograph from WHO, Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Monograph series No:48, 1962. 321-345 p.

Liu D. Z., Dunstan D.E., Martin G. J. O. Evaporative concentration of skimmed milk: Effect of casein micelle hydration, composition and size. Food Chemistry. 2012 Oct; 134 (3):1446-1452.

Ramirez, C.A. , M. Patel M., Blok K. From fluid milk to milk powder: Energy use and energy efficiency in the European dairy industry. Energy. 2016 Sep; 31 (12):1984–2004.

Jiao B. , Cassano A., , Drioli E. Recent advances on membrane processes for the concentration of fruit juices: a review. Journal of Food Engineering 2004 Aug; 63(3):303–324.

Wenten I.G., Khoiruddin. Reverse osmosis applications: Prospect and challenges. Desalination. 2016 Aug; 391(SI):112–125.

Keogh M. K., Murray C.A., O’Kennedy B.T. Effects of ultrafiltration of whole milk on some properties of spray-dried milk powders. International Dairy Journal. 2003; 13(12):995–1002.

Hausmann A., Sanciolo P., Vasiljevic T., Ponnampalam E. Quispe-Chavez N., Weeks M, Duke M., Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams. Membranes. 2011 Jan;1:48-58.

Hausmann A., Sanciolo P., Vasiljevic T., Kulozik U., Duke M. Performance assessment of membrane distillation for skim milk and whey processing. Journal of Dairy Science. 2014 Jan;97(1):56–71.

Sant’Anna V., Marczak L.D.F., Tessaro I.C. Membrane concentration of liquid foods by forward osmosis: Process and quality view. Journal of Food Engineering. 2012 Aug; 111(3):483–489

Thanedgunbaworn R., Jiraratananon R., Nguyen M.H. Mass and heat transfer analysis in fructose concentration by osmotic distillation process using hollow fiber module. Journal of Food Engineering. 2007 Jan;78(1) 126-135.

Zambra C., , Romero J., Pino L., Saavedra A., Sanchez J. Concentration of cranberry juice by osmotic distillation process. Journal of Food Engineering. 2015 Jan;144,58–65.

Alves V.D., Coelhoso I.M. Orange juice concentration by osmotic evaporation and membrane distillation: A comparative study. Journal of Food Engineering. 2006 May;78(1):125–133.

Dincer C. , Tontul I., Topuz A. A comparative study of black mulberry juice concentrates by thermal evaporation and osmotic distillation as influenced by storage. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2016 Dec; 38(A):57–64.




J. Turk. Chem. Soc., Sect. B: Chem. Eng.