SPARK DISCHARGE SYNTHESIS OF IRON OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

Onur Ezgi
1.243 567

Abstract


Iron oxide nanoparticles, especially magnetite and maghemite have useful properties in a number of application areas, e.g. in hyperthermia for cancer treatment. In the present work, iron oxide nanoparticles were produced in a spark discharge chamber with the use of iron electrodes under argon flow. The distance between the electrodes are adjusted automatically such that spark occurs at a constant energy and the same breakdown voltage ensuring uniformity in the particle size. Aerosol generated in this way was fed to a filter system whereby the nanoparticles were separated from the argon gas. The particles as characterized by VSM were superparamagnetic and thus complied with the requirements for hyperthermia. TEM measurements, however, showed that they were 3.3 nm in size on average. This value was less than what is normally aimed in hyperthermia.

Magnetization (M) vs. Magnetic Field (H) measured in vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by spark discharge. Note that particles are superparamagnetic, i.e. when magnetic field is fully reversed, magnetization follows the same curve, i.e. particles display no hysterisis.

Keywords


spark discharge; iron oxide nanoparticles; hyperthermia superparamagnetism

Full Text:

PDF

References


Gupta, A. K. & Gupta, M., Biomaterials, Synthesis and Surface Engineering Of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Bio- medical Applications, 26-18, 3995-4021, 2005.

R. Hergt, S. Dutz, R. Müller, M. Zeisberger, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 18, Magnetic Particle Hyper- thermia: Nanoparticle Magnetism and Materials Develop- ment for Cancer Therapy, 2919-2934, 2006.

Gubin, S. P., Koksharov, Y. A., Khomutov, G. B., Yurkov, G. Y., Russian Chemical Reviews 74, 489, Magnetic Nano- particles: Preparation, Structure and Properties, 490-497, 2005.

C. S. S. R. Kumar & F. Mohammad, Advanced Drug De- livery Reviews, 63, 9, Magnetic Nanomaterials for Hyper- thermia-Based Therapy and Controlled Drug Delivery, 789- 808, 2011.

P. Lei, A. M. Boies, S. Calder, S. L. Girschick, Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, 32 Thermal Plasma Syn- thesis of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications, 519–531, 2012.

D. K. Chatterjee, P. Diagaradjane, S. Krishnan, Thera- peutic Delivery, 1; 2(8), Nanoparticle-Mediated Hyper- thermia in Cancer Therapy, 1001–1014, 2012.

Davis, M. E., Chen, Z., Shin, D. M., National Review of Drug Discovery, Sep;7(9), Nanoparticle Therapeutics: An Emerging Treatment Modality for Cancer, 771-82, 2008.

Hadjipanayis, G. C., Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 200, 1–3, Nanophase Hard Magnets, 373–391, 1999.

P. H. Linh, P. V. Thach, N. A Tuan, N. C. Thuan, D. H. Manh, N. X. Phuc, L. V. Hong, Journal of Physics: Confer- ence Series, 187 012069, Magnetic Fluid Based on Fe3O4 Nanoparticles: Preparation and Hyperthermia Application, n.p., 2009.

N. S. Tabrizi, Q. Xu, N. M. Pers, U. Lafont, A. Schmidt- Ott, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 11, Synthesis of mixed metallic nanoparticles by spark discharge, 1209- 1218, 2009. AUTHOR INFORMATION