Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance in Bacillus Strains Isolated From Soils in Rize, Turkey

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Fifteen Bacillus strains were isolated from soil samples in Rize, Turkey and, they were identified using morphological, biochemical and, molecular techniques. All strains were examined for resistance to 17 different antibiotics (ampicillin, methicillin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, cephalotine, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, vancomycin, oxacilin, neomycin, kanamycin, novabiocin) and to 10 different heavy metals (copper, lead, cobalt, chrome, iron, mercury, zinc, nickel, manganese, cadmium) and for the presence of plasmid DNA. A total of eleven strains (67%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The most common resistance was observed against methicillin and oxacillin. The most resistance strains were found as Bacillus sp. B3 and Bacillus sp. B11. High heavy metal resistance against copper, chromium, zinc, iron and nickel was detected, but mercury and cobalt resistance was not detected, except for 3 strains (B3, B11, B12) which showed mercury resistance. It has been determined that seven Bacillus strains have plasmids. The isolated plasmids were transformed into the Bacillus subtilis W168 and it was shown that heavy metal and antibiotic resistance determinants were carried on these plasmids. There was correlation between plasmid content and resistance for both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance.

Anahtar kelimeler

Bacillus Plazmit Antibiyotik direnci Metal direnci Transformasyon

Tam metin:



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Bacillus subtilis. App. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 1138- 1 Abbreviations DNA kg m-3

MHA Muller Hinton Agar CLSI Clinical and laboratory Standards Institute NCCLS National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards µg MIC µl rpm nm °C PAL LB pH mM mL OD UV WT Wild Type