Sulu Çam Çıra Ekstresinin Diyabet Oluşturulan Sıçanların Testis Dokusu Üzerindeki Etkisi

Ökkeş YILMAZ, Ersin DEMİR, Halise SARIGÜL
991 371

Öz


Bu çalışmanın temel amacı Tip 2 diyabetle indüklenen testis hasarında oksidatif stresin baskılanmasında sulu çam çıra ekstresinin olası etkilerini araştırmaktır.  Çalışmada 49 adet 2,5 aylık erkek sıçanlar tercih edildi. Sıçanlar; kontrol, diyabet ve farklı dozlardan oluşan diyabet+çam çırası olmak üzere gruplara ayrıldı (D+Ç100, D+Ç200, D+Ç400).  Kontrol grubu dışındaki sıçanlara 45 mg/kg streptozotozin (STZ) intraperitonal olarak verilerek Tip-2 diyabet oluşturuldu.  Diyabet oluşumundan sonra sıçanların içme sularına farklı dozlarda (100 g/L, 200 g/L, 400 g/L) çam çıra ekstresi eklenerek suya serbest olarak erişimleri sağlandı.  Deneysel uygulamalar 10 hafta sürdü.  Kontrol grubu ile karşılaştırıldığında, diyabet grubunda MDA seviyesinin kayda değer düzeyde arttığı (p<0.001), total protein düzeyinin ise önemli düzeyde azaldığı (p<0.05) belirlendi.  Diyabet grubu ile karşılaştırıldığında çıra suyu verilen gruplarda MDA düzeyinin önemli düzeyde azaldığı (p<0.001), protein seviyesinin ise önemli düzeyde yükseldiği (D+Ç100) (p<0.05) belirlendi. İncelenen diğer parametrelerde (α-tokoferol, palmitik, oleik, linoleik asit ve doza bağlı diğer parametreler) ise istatistiksel açıdan anlamlı değişiklikler tespit edildi (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001). Sonuç olarak, sulu çam çıra ekstresinin oksidatif stres seviyesini azaltarak testiküler hasarı azaltmada potansiyel olarak yararlı olduğu gözlenmiştir.


Anahtar kelimeler


Çam çıra ekstresi; Diyabet; Oksidatif stres; Vitamin; Yağ asidi

Tam metin:

PDF


Referanslar


[1] Koroglu, P., Senturk, G. E., Yucel, D., Ozakpinar, O. B., Uras, F., Arbak, S. 2015. The effect of exogenous oxytocin on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic adult rat testes, Peptides, 63, 47-54.

[2] Yigitturk, G., Acara, A. C., Erbas, O., Oltulu, F., Yavasoglu, N. U., Uysal, A., Yavasoglu, A. 2017. The antioxidant role of agomelatine and gallic acid on oxidative stress in STZ induced type I diabetic rat testes. Biomed Pharmacother, 87, 240-246.

[3] Adedara, I. A., Awogbindin, I. O., Anamelechi, J. P., Farombi, E. O. 2015. Garcinia kola seed ameliorates renal, hepatic, and testicular oxidative damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharm Biol, 53(5), 695-704.

[4] Li, M., Liu, Z., Zhuan, L., Wang, T., Guo, S., Wang, S., Liu, J., Ye, Z. 2013. Effects of apocynin on oxidative stress and expression of apoptosis-related genes in testes of diabetic rats. Mol Med Rep, 7(1), 47-52.

[5] Rohdewald, P. 2002. A review of the French maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol), a herbal medication with a diverse clinical pharmacology. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 40, 158–168.

[6] Lee, I. C., Ko, J. W., Park, S. H., Shin, N. R., Shin, I.S., Kim, Y. B., Kim, J. C. 2017. Ameliorative effects of pine bark extract on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury in rats. Ren Fail, 39(1), 363-371.

[7] Guo, Q., Zhao, B., Packer, L. 1999. Electron spin resonance study of free radicals formed from a procyanidin-rich pine (Pinus maritima) bark extract, pycnogenol. Free Radic Biol Med, 27, 1308–1312.

[8] Maritim, A., Dene, B. E., Sanders, R. A., Watkins, J.B. 2003. Effects of pycnogenol treatment on oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 17, 193–198.

[9] McGrath, K. C., Li, X. H., McRobb, L. S., Heather, A. K. 2015. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2015, 260530.

[10] Eryilmaz, A., Eliyatkin, N., Demirci, B., Basal, Y., Kurt Omurlu, I., Gunel, C., Aktas, S., Toka, A., Basak S. 2016. Protective effect of Pycnogenol on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in rats. Pharm Biol, 54(11), 2777-2781.

[11] Erdal, N., Gürgül, S., Kavak, S., Yildiz, A., Emre, M. 2011. Deterioration of bone quality by streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res, 140(3), 342-53.

[12] Dewanjee, S., Das, A. K., Sahu, R., Gangopadhyay, M. 2009. Antidiabetic activity of Diospyros peregrina fruit: effect on hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and augmented oxidative stress in experimental type 2 diabetes. Food Chem Toxicol, 47(10), 2679-85.

[13] Demir, E., Yılmaz, Ö. 2014. Streptozotosin ile Tip-1 diyabet oluşturulan sıçanlarda acı badem yağının serum ve eritrositlerdeki bazı biyokimyasal parametrelere etkisi. Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal, 18, 13-21.

[14] Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N., Yagi, K. 1979. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem, 95(2), 351-8.

[15] Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L., Randall, R. J., 1951. Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry,193, 265-275.

[16] Hara, A., Radin, N. S., 1978. Lipid extraction of tissues with a low-toxicity solvent. Anal Biochem, 90(1), 420-6.

[17] Christie, W. W. 1992. Gas chromatography and lipids. The Oil Press, Glasgow, 302s.

[18] Tvrzická, E., Vecka, M., Staňková, B., Žák, A., 2002. Analysis of fatty acids in plasma lipoproteins by gas chromatography–flame ionization detection: Quantitative aspects. Analytica Chimica Acta, 465, 337-350.

[19] Sánchez-Machado, D. I., López-Hernández, J., Paseiro-Losada, P. 2002. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of alpha-tocopherol in macroalgae. J Chromatogr A, 976(1-2), 277-84.

[20] López-Cervantes, J., Sánchez-Machado, D. I., Ríos-Vázquez, N. J. 2006. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, and cholesterol in shrimp waste hydrolysate. J Chromatogr A, 1105(1-2), 135-9.

[21] Yi, J., Cheng, C., Li, X., Zhao, H., Qu, H., Wang, Z., Wang, L. 2017. Protective mechanisms of purified polyphenols from pinecones of Pinus koraiensis on spleen tissues in tumor-bearing S180 mice in vivo. Food Funct, 8(1), 151-166.

[22] Aruoma, O. I. 1998. Free radicals, oxidative stress, andantioxidants in human health and disease. Journal of the American oil chemists' society, 72(2), 199-212.

[23] Bajaj, S., Khan, A. 2012. Antioxidants and diabetes. Indian J Endocrinol Metab, 16(Suppl 2), S267–S271.

[24] Rahimi-Madiseh, M., Malekpour-Tehrani, A., Bahmani, M., Rafieian-Kopaei, M. 2016. The research and development on the antioxidants in prevention of diabetic complications. Asian Pac J Trop Med, 9(9),825-31.

[25] Packer, L., Rimbach, G., Virgili, F. 1999. Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol. Free Radic Biol Med, 27(5-6), 704-24.

[26] Iravani, S., Zolfaghari, B. 2014. Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark. Res Pharm Sci, 9(4), 243-50.

[27] Babaee, F., Safaeian, L., Zolfaghari, B., Haghjoo Javanmard, S. 2016. Cytoprotective Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Pinus eldarica Bark against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Endothelial Cells. Iran Biomed J, 20(3), 161-7.

[28] Nain, P., Saini, V., Sharma, S., Nain, J. 2012. Antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. leaves extract in streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 142(1), 65-71.

[29] Florence, N. T., Benoit, M. Z., Jonas, K., Alexandra, T., Désiré, D. D., Pierre, K., Théophile, D. 2014. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Annona muricata (Annonaceae), aqueous extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 151(2), 784-90.

[30] Saliu, J. A., Oboh, G., Omojokun, O. S., Rocha, J. B., Schetinger, M. R., Guterries, J., Stefanello, N., Carvalho, F., Schmatz, R., Morsch, V. M., Boligon, A. 2016. Effect of dietary supplementation of Padauk (Pterocarpus soyauxii) leaf on high fat diet/streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats' brain and platelets. Biomed Pharmacother, 84, 1194-1201.

[31] Bal, R., Türk, G., Tuzcu, M., Yilmaz, O., Ozercan, I., Kuloglu, T., Gür, S., Nedzvetsky, V. S., Tykhomyrov, A. A., Andrievsky, G. V., Baydas, G., Naziroglu, M. 2011. Protective effects of nanostructures of hydrated C(60) fullerene on reproductive function in streptozotocin-diabetic male rats. Toxicology, 282(3), 69-81.

[32] Shrilatha, B., Muralidhara. 2007. Early oxidative stress in testis and epididymal sperm in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: its progression and genotoxic consequences. Reprod Toxicol, 23(4), 578-87.

[33] Won, S. B., Jung, G. Y., Kim, J., Chung, Y. S., Hong, E. K., Kwon, Y. H. 2013. Protective effect of Pinus koraiensis needle water extract against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells and obese mice. J Med Food, 16(7), 569-76.

[34] Devaraj, S., Vega-López, S., Kaul, N., Schönlau, F., Rohdewald, P., Jialal, I. 2002. Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile. Lipids, 37(10), 931-4.

[35] Parveen, K., Khan, M. R., Mujeeb, M., Siddiqui W. A. 2010. Protective effects of Pycnogenol on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. Chem Biol Interact, 186(2), 219-27.

[36] Rizvi, S., Raza, S. T., Ahmed, F., Ahmad, A., Abbas, S., Mahdi, F. 2014. The role of vitamin E in human health and some diseases. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J, 14(2), 157-65.

[37] Gavazza, M., Catalá, A. 2001. The effect of alpha-tocopherol on the lipid peroxidation of mitochondria and microsomes obtained from rat liver and testis. Mol Cell Biochem, 225(1-), 121-8.

[38] De, A., Singh, M. F., Singh, V., Ram, V., Bisht, S. 2016. Treatment effect of l-Norvaline on the sexual performance of male rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes. Eur J Pharmacol, 771, 247-54.

[39] Hamden, K., Jaouadi, B., Carreau, S., Aouidet, A., El-Fazaa, S., Gharbi, N., Elfeki, A. 2010. Potential protective effect on key steroidogenesis and metabolic enzymes and sperm abnormalities by fenugreek steroids in testis and epididymis of surviving diabetic rats. Arch Physiol Biochem, 116(3), 146-55.

[40] Arikawe, A. P., Oyerinde, A., Olatunji-Bello, I. I., Obika, L. F. 2012. Streptozotocin diabetes and insulin resistance impairment of spermatogenesis in adult rat testis: central vs. local mechanism. Niger J Physiol Sci, 27(2), 171-9.

[41] Huang, Y. S., Horrobin, D. F., Manku, M. S., Mitchell, J., Ryan, M. A. 1984. Tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition in the diabetic rat. Lipids, 19(5), 367-70.

[42] Ntambi, J. M. 1995. The regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Prog. Lipid Res, 34, 139–150.

[43] Miyazaki, M., Gomez, F. E., Ntambi, J. M. 2002. Lack of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 function induces a palmitoyl-CoA Delta6 desaturase and represses the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-3 gene in the preputial glands of the mouse. J. Lipid Res, 43, 2146–2154.

[44] Nakamura, M. T., Nara T. Y. 2004. Structure, function, and dietary regulation of delta6, delta5, and delta9 desaturases. Annu Rev Nutr, 24, 345-76.

[45] Wilder, P. J., Coniglio J. G. 1984. The effects of streptozotocin diabetes and of dietary protein content on the composition and metabolism of testicular lipids. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 177(3), 399-405.

[46] Hurtado de Catalfo, G. E., De Gómez Dumm, I. N. 1998. Lipid dismetabolism in Leydig and Sertoli cells isolated from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 30(9), 1001-10.

[47] Hu, Q., Ishii, E., Nakagawa, Y. 1994. Differential changes in relative levels of arachidonic acid in major phospholipids from rat tissues during the progression of diabetes. J Biochem, 115(3), 405-408.

[48] Romanelli, F., Valenca, M., Conte, D., Isidori, A., Negro-Vilar, A. 1995. Arachidonic acid and its metabolites effects on testosterone production by rat Leydig cells. J Endocrinol Invest, 18(3), 186-93.

[49] Chan, A. C. 1993. Partners in defense, vitamin E and vitamin C. Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 71(9), 725-31.

[50] Burczynski, J. M., Southard, S. J., Hayes, J. R., Longhurst, P. A., Colby, H. D. 2001. Changes in mitochondrial and microsomal lipid peroxidation and fatty acid profiles in adrenal glands, testes, and livers from alpha-tocopherol-deficient rats. Free Radic Biol Med, 30(9), 1029-35.