Determination of antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw.
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the possible antimicrobial and anticancer properties of the aquatic moss Fontinalis antipyretica Hedw. (Fontinalaceae). We first obtained 8 different extracts (methanol; chloroform; acetone; ethyl acetate A, B, C, and D) by two different extraction processes. The antimicrobial activity of these extracts was then assessed by using the well diffusion method against 8 bacterial and 7 fungal strains. The results of antimicrobial studies showed that extracts of chloroform, acetone, and ethyl acetate A and C were active against almost all the species tested. The most effective extract was C, which was then screened through a preparative TLC (bioautography) for its active components. Spot 4 of extract C exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against 5 bacterial strains (B. cereus, B. subtilis, E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and Y. enterocolitica) and 3 fungal strains (A. flavus, F. solani, and F. graminearum), with MIC values of 93.8-375.0 µg/mL and 187.5-375.0 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, in vitro toxicity of the active component of extract C at the concentrations of 0.16, 1.6, 16, 80, and 160 µg/mL was tested. Depending on dose and time, only 80 and 160 µg/mL decreased rat glioma (C6) cell viability after 24 or 48 h. The present study suggests the possibility that Fontinalis antipyretica possesses antimicrobial and anticancer agent(s).
Key words: Activity, antibacterial, antifungal, Bryophyta, extract, toxicity