Effect of boric acid on corrosion and electrochemical performance of Pb-0.08% Ca-1.1% Sn alloys containing Cu, As, and Sb impurities for manufacture of grids of lead-acid batteries

Said SALIH, Ahmed GAD-ALLAH, Ashraf ABD EL-WAHAB, Hamid ABD EL-RAHMAN
510 125

Abstract


The electrochemical performance of lead-acid batteries made of Pb--Ca--Sn alloys with and without 0.1% of each of Cu, As, and Sb individually and combined in 4.0 M H2SO4 in the absence and presence of 0.4 M H3BO3 was studied. Both impurities and H3BO3 were found to reduce the corrosion rate. Cyclic voltammetry revealed that the presence of impurities or H3BO3 significantly retarded the formation of large crystal PbSO4. H3BO3 increased the rates of oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions for all alloys. Impedance measurement was used to quantify the amounts of PbSO4 and PbO in the initial stage of the oxidation. H3BO3 decreased the positive grid corrosion of all alloys, while impurities increased it. Although impurities increased the self-discharge during constant current discharge, H3BO3 was found to decrease it, except for the alloy containing the 3 impurities and the Cu-containing alloy. Under open-circuit conditions, H3BO3 increased significantly the self-discharge rate, but impurities were found to suppress it.

Keywords


Pb--Ca--Sn alloys, lead-acid batteries, recycled lead, boric acid

Full Text:

PDF

References


Maja, M.; Penazzi, N. J. Power Sources 1988, 22, 1–9.

Sanchez, H.; Meas; Y.; Gonzalez, I; Quiroz, M. A. J. Power Sources 1990, 32, 43–53.

Pavlov, D. J. Power Sources 1991, 33, 221–229.

Pavlov, D.; Dakhouche, A.; Rogachev, T. J. Power Sources 1993, 42, 71–88.

Mahato, B. K.; Tiedemann, W. H. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1983, 130, 2139–2144.

Hasik, E.; Paszkiewicz, M. J. Power Sources 1990, 30, 107–116.

Voss, E.; Hullmeine, U.; Winsel, A. J. Power Sources 1990, 30, 33–40.

Rogachev, T.; Pavlov, D. J. Power Sources 1997, 64, 51–56.

Chahmanaa, N.; Matrakovab, M.; Zerroual, L.; Pavlov, D. J. Power Sources 2009, 191, 51–57.

Chahmana, N.; Zerroual, L.; Matrakova, M. J. Power Sources 2009, 191, 144–147.

Wagner, R; Sauer, D. U. J. Power Sources 2001, 95, 141–152.

Bullock, K. R.; McClelland, D. H. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1976, 123, 327–331.

Francia, C; Maja, M; Solarino, L.; Spinelli, P.; Torcheux, L. ; Lailler, P. J. Electrochem. Soc. 2003, 150, A826–A834. Amlie, R. F.; Weissman, E. Y.; Morehouse, C. K.; Qureshi, N. M. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1972, 119, 568–571 . Mahato, B. K.; Weissman, E. Y.; Laird, E. C. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1974, 121, 13–16. Visscher, W. J. Power Sources 1976/77, 1, 257–266.

Bullock, K. R.; McClelland, D. H. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1977, 124, 1478–1482. Mahato, B. K. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1979, 126, 365–374.

Bullock, K. R. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1979, 126, 1848–1853.

Bullock, K. R. J. Electrochem. Soc. 1979, 126, 360–365.

Stemberg, S.; Mateescu, A.; Brˆ anzoi, V.; Ap˘ ateanu, L. Electrochim. Acta 1987, 32, 349–351.

Voss, E. J. Power Sources 1988, 24, 171–184.

Sternberg, S.; Brˆ anzoi, V.; Ap˘ ateanu, L. J. Power Sources 1990, 30, 177–183.

Garche, J.; D¨ oring, H.; Wiesener, K. J. Power Sources 1991, 33, 213–220.

D¨ oring, H.; Wiesener, K.; Garche, J.; Fischer, P. I. J. Power Sources 1992, 38, 261–272.

Venugopalan, S. J. Power Sources 1993, 46, 1–15.

Venugopalan, S. J. Power Sources 1994, 48, 371–384.

Meissner, E. J. Power Sources 1997, 67, 135–150.

Bhattacharya, A.; Basumallick, I. N. J. Power Sources 2003, 113, 382–387.

Paleskaa, I.; Pruszkowska-Drachala, R.; Kotowskia, J.; Dziudzia, A.; Milewskic, J. D.; Kopczykc, M.; Czerwinskia, A. J. Power Sources 2003, 113, 308–317.

Li, S.; Chen, H. Y.; Tang, M. C.; Wei, W. W.; Xia, Z. W.; Wu, Y. M.; Li, W. S.; Jiang, X. J. Power Sources 2006, 158, 914–919.

Saminathan, K.; Jayaprakash, N.; Rajeswari, B.; Vasudevan, T. J. Power Sources 2006, 160, 1410–1413.

Abd El-Rahman, H. A.; Salih, S. A.; Abd El-Wahab, A. M. AFINIDAD 2011, 555, 1–6

Abd El-Rahman, H. A.; Salih, S. A.; Abd El-Wahab, A. M. Mat.-wiss. Werkstofftech. 2011, 42, 784–791.

Abd El-Rahman, H. A.; Salih, S. A.; Abd El-Wahab, A. M. Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology 2011, 2, 76–84.

Wei, G. L.; Wang, J. R. J. Power Sources, 1994, 52, 25–29.

Yazd, M. S.; Molazemi, A., Moayed, M. H. J. Power Sources 2006, 158, 705–709.

Badawy, W. A.; El-Egamy, S. S. J. Power Sources 1995, 55, 11–17.

Chen, H. Y.; Li, W. S.; Zhu, Y. B.; Tian, L. P. J. Power Sources 2000, 88, 78–82.

Stevenson, M. In Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, Garche, J., Ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2009, pp. 165–178.

Fr¨ olich, S.; Sewig, D. J. Power Sources 1995, 57, 27–30.

Ellis, T. W.; Mirza, A. H. J. Power Sources 2010, 195, 4525–4529.

Gad-Allah, A. G.; Abd El-Rahman, H. A.; Salih, S. A.; Abd El-Galil, M. J Appl. Electrochem. 1995, 25, 682–689. Gad-Allah, A. G.; Abd El-Rahman, H. A.; Salih, S. A.; Abd El-Galil, M. J Appl. Electrochem. 1997, 22, 571–756. Varela, F. E.; Cordoro, E. N.; Vilche, J. R. Electrochim. Acta 1995, 40, 1183–1189.

Yamamoto, Y.; Matsuka, M.; Kimoto, M.; Uemura, M.; Iwakura, C. Electrochim. Acta 1996, 41, 439–444.

Codaro, E. N.; Vilche, J. R. Electrochim. Acta 1997, 42, 549–555.

Guo, Y.; Wu, M.; Hua, S. J. Power Sources 1997, 64, 65–69.

Guo, Y.; Wu, M.; Hua, S. Electrochim. Acta 1997, 42, 979–984.

Czerwi´ nski, A.; ˙ Zelazowska, M.; Grde´ n, M.; Kuc, K.; Milewski, J. D.; Nowacki, A.; W´ ojcik, G.; Kopczyk, M. J. Power Sources 2000, 85, 49–55. Sun, Q.; Guo, Y. J. Electroanal. Chem. 2000, 493, 123–129. Rocca, E.; Steinmetz, J. J. Electroanal. Chem. 2003, 543, 153–160.

Metikos-Hukovic, M.; Babic, R.; Brinic, S. J. Power Sources 2006, 157, 563–570. McGregor, K. J. Power Sources 1996, 59, 31–43.