Histological changes in the healing process of sclerotomy sites after 20-gauge and transconjunctival 23- and 25-gauge incisions in experimental model*
To evaluate the healing mechanism and histological changes of the 20-gauge standard, and 23- and 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) incisions in rabbits. Materials and methods: Twelve of 16 albino rabbits’ right eyes underwent sclerotomy of either 20-gauge standard, or 23-gauge or 25-gauge TSV incisions. Four rabbits were tested as controls. The study eyes were examined clinically on the first postoperative day and in 3-day periods for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, rabbits were euthanized; globes were enucleated and underwent histological examination. The sclerotomy sites were investigated histopathologically under light microscope for wound healing semicantitatively. Results: Pathological sections were examined to monitor the healing course of the sclerotomy sites. Edema, mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration, fibroplasia, foreign body reaction, neovascularization, and reactive-regenerative changes on ciliary body were evaluated and scored. Fibroplasia and reactive-regenerative changes on ciliary body were statistically significant in eyes treated with 20-gauge standard sclerotomy (P < 0.05). For foreign body reaction results, there was no statistically significant difference between all groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Conventional 20-gauge sclerotomies required conjunctival peritomy and suturing. Transconjunctival 23-gauge and 25-gauge sclerotomy incision procedures without sutures and peritomy decrease overall surgical time, avoid the local inflammatory reaction to the suture materials, decrease postoperative inflammation, and support rapid healing recovery.
Key words: Sclerotomy, transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy incision, wound healing