A pilot study on the epidemiological status of equine infectious anaemia, equine viral arteritis, glanders, and dourine in Turkey

Maria Luisa MARENZONI, Vincenzo CUTERI, Francesca DE PARRI, Maria Luisa DANZETTA, Zeki YILMAZ, Çağla Parkan YARAMIŞ, Engin KENNERMAN, Mehmet Erman OR, Silvia MARCHI, Cristina CASCIARI, Gian Mario DE MIA, Carlo VALENTE, Silva COSTARELLI
552 238

Abstract


A serological investigation of equine infectious anaemia (EIA), equine viral arteritis (EAV), glanders, and dourine was conducted on the sera of 346 Turkish horses using a combination of tests in series (ELISA and agar gel immunodiffusion) for EIA, virus neutralisation for EAV, and complement fixation (CF) for glanders and dourine. Forty-nine sera showed anticomplementary reactions and were not assessable in the CF test for glanders and dourine. No positive samples were detected for EIA, dourine, and glanders. Fifty-seven sera were positive for EAV. A systematic review of the distribution of these diseases in Turkey was conducted to describe their epidemiological status in the country. The serological results of this investigation confirm those of the published reports for EAV and glanders, whereas different results were reported for dourine and EIA. In fact, no previous data were found for dourine. Furthermore, all sera tested for EIA in the literature were negative, but 3 outbreaks were reported on an international official site in 2005 without details. Further studies and reports of the outbreaks are needed to better understand the real status of infections and the transmission of the diseases. The systematic review is a useful tool to improve the knowledge of public health disease in a country.

Keywords


Key words: Equine infectious anaemia, equine viral arteritis, glanders, dourine, Turkey, systematic review

Full Text:

PDF

References


OIE, the World Organisation for Animal Health: Equine Infectious Anaemia. In: Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals: mammals, birds and bees. 6th edn., Vol. 2, Office international des épizooties, 2008; 866-870.

OIE, the World Organisation for Animal Health: Equine Viral Arteritis. In: Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals: mammals, birds and bees. 6th edn., Vol. 2, Office international des épizooties, 2008; 904-918.

Pronost, S., Pitel, P.H., Miszczak, F., Legrand, L., MarcillaudPitel, C., Hamon, M., Tapprest, J., Balasuriya, U.B., Freymuth, F., Fortier, G.: Description of the first recorded major occurrence of equine viral arteritis in France. Equine Vet. J., 2010; 42: 713–720.

OIE, the World Organisation for Animal Health: Glanders. In: Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals: mammals, birds and bees. 6th edn., Vol. 2, Office international des épizooties, 2008; 919-928.

OIE, the World Organisation for Animal Health: Dourine. In: Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals: mammals, birds and bees. 6th edn., Vol. 2, Office international des épizooties, 2008; 845-851.

Albayrak, H., Ozan, E.: Serosurveillance for equine infectious anaemia in the Ardahan province of Turkey. Trop. Anim. Health Pro., 2010; 42: 1593–1595.

Ataseven, V.S., Arslan, H.H.: Equine infectious anaemia in mules, donkeys, and horses: epidemiologic studies in the different geographic regions of Turkey. J. Equine Vet. Sci., 2005; 25: 439–441.

Kırmızıgül, A.H., Yıldırım, Y., Gökçe, E., Ataseven, V.S.: Serologic evaluation of the equine infectious anaemia in Kars and Ardahan – Turkey. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fac. J., 2009; 15: 77– 80 (article in Turkish with abstract in English).

Turan, N., Yılmaz, H., Uysal, A., Arslan, M.: Seronegative findings on the investigations of equine infectious anaemia in the Marmara region of Turkey. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 2002; 26: 299–302.

Tutuncu, M., Akkan, H.A., Karaca, M., Ceylan, E., Berktas M., Agaoglu, Z.: Seronegativity of equine infectious anemia in the east border of Turkey. Indian Vet. J., 2004; 81: 614–615.

Yapkic, O., Yavru, S., Kale, M., Bulut, O., Simsek, A., Sahna, K.C.: An investigation of equine infectious anaemia infection in the central Anatolia region of Turkey. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc., 2007; 78: 12–14.

Albayrak, H., Ozan, E.: Seroprevalance of some arboviral infections transmitted by blood sucking flies at middle Black Sea region in cattle and equine, Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fac. J., 2010; 16: 33–36 (article in Turkish with abstract in English).

Burgu, İ., Akça, Y., Toker, A., Alkan, F.: Serologic investigation of equine infectious anaemia. Ankara Univ. Vet. Fac. J., 1989; 36: 123–128 (article in Turkish with abstract in English).

Turan, N., Ekici, H., Yilmaz, H., Kondo, T., Hasoksuz, M., Sato, I., Tuchiya, K., Fukunaga, Y.: Detection of antibodies to equine arteritis virus in horse sera using recombinant chimaeric N/G L protein. Vet. Rec., 2007; 161: 352–354.

Yildirim, Y., Kirmizigul, A.H., Tan, M.T., Gokce, E., Irmak, K.: Seroprevalence of equine viral arteritis in donkeys in Kars District, Turkey. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 2008; 7: 1110–1112.

Kırmızıgül, A.H., Yıldırım, Y., Gökçe, E.: Seroprevalance determination of equine viral arteritis ınfection at Kars and Ardahan region in horses. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fac. J., 2007; 13: 171–175 (article in Turkish with abstract in English).

Ramina, A., Dalla Vale, L., De Mas, S., Tisato, E., Zuin, A., Renier, M., Cuteri, V., Valente, C., Cancellotti, F.E.: Detection of equine viral arteritis virus in semen by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-ELISA. Comp. Immunol. Microb., 1999; 22: 187–197.

Yılmaz, H., Özgür, N.Y., İlgaz, A.: Serologic investigation on equine viral arteritis. I. National Veterinary Microbiology Congress, İstanbul. 1996; 200 (article in Turkish with abstract in English).

Arun, S., Neubauer, H., Gürel, A., Ayyildiz, G., Kusçu, B., Yesildere, T., Meyer, H., Hermanns, W.: Equine glanders in Turkey. Vet. Rec., 1999; 144: 255–258.

Galati, P., Corsalini, T., Roperto, F.: Gross and histological findings in glanders lesions found in two mallein-negative horses at slaughter. Acta Med. Vet. 1976; 22: 121–130.

Osmanağaoğlu, Ş., Melikoğlu, B.: A historical glance at eradication of glander disease in Turkey. Kafkas Univ. Vet. Fac. J., 2009; 15: 331–337 (article in Turkish with abstract in English).

Maclachlan, N.J., Balasuriya, U.B.: Equine viral arteritis. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 2006; 581: 429–433.