1.871 583


Economic development is not enough to improve social development. Social indicators, such as poverty, unemployment, income distribution, health and education are the key elements which show the quality of the life in society. An analysis of country development that does not include social parameters is insufficient and unrealistic. Foreign direct investment (FDI) and its impact on the economy is one of the most studied issues during the past few decades but there is still an untouched area in the literature concerning the relationship between socioeconomic conditions and FDI. With this paper, we investigate the social parameters as well as economic parameters for testing the relationship between FDI and socioeconomic conditions, using Turkish data. The results show that there is a cointegrating vector between FDI and socioeconomic conditions. This indicates that there is long run equilibrium relation between the two variables. The error correction model indicates that in the short-run there is causality between socioeconomic condition and FDI. Socioeconomic conditions have a positive and significant effect on FDI.

Anahtar kelimeler

Foreign Direct Investment, Socioeconomic Conditions, Development

Tam metin:



AKDİŞ, M. (1988), “Dünya’da ve Türkiye'de Yabancı Sermaye Yatırımları ve Beklentiler”, İnceleme Yarışması-Mansiyon, Dünya'da ve Türkiye'de Yabancı Sermaye Yatırımları ve Beklentiler, İstanbul, YASED Yayınları No: 33, 61-90.

ALFARO, L., Chanda, A., Kalemli-Ozcan, S., Sayek, S. (2004), “FDI and Economic Growth: The Role of Local Financial Markets.” Journal of International Economics, October 2004, 64, 89-112.

AL-YOUSIF, Y. K. 2002, “Financial Development and Economic Growth Another Look At The Evidence From Developing Countries”, Review of Financial Economics, 11,131-150.

ARNOLD, J., JAVORCİCK, B. (2004), “Gifted Kids or Pushy Parents? Foreign Acquisitions and Plant Performance in Indonesia”, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3597. Washington, DC: The World Bank

ASANO H. (1999), “Financial Deregulation and Stability of Money Demand: The Australian Case”, Australian Economic Papers 38 (4), (December), 407-421.

The risk rating assigned is the sum of three subcomponents, each with a maximum score of four points and a minimum score of 0 points. A score of 4 points equates to very low risk and a score of 0 points to very high risk.

BAILEY D., N. DRIFFIELD (2006), “Industrial Policy, FDI and Employment: Still Missing a Strategy”, Published online: Springer Science + Business Media, Barros de Castro (2005), “Innovations, Technological Patterns and Performance of Brazilian Industrial Companies”

papers/2008/1201546096_JD. pdf (2.9.2010).

BASU, P., CHAKRABORTY, C., REAGLE, D. (2003), “Liberalization, FDI, and Growth in Developing Countries: A Panel Cointegration Approach”, Economic Inquiry, 41, 510- 516.

BELADI, H. AND MARJIT, S. (1992), “Foreign Capital, Unemployment and National Welfare’, Japan and the World Economy 4, 311-317.

BERNARD, A.B., SJÖHOLM, F. (2003), “Foreign Owners and Plant Survival” NBER Working Paper No. w10039

BLOMSTRÖM, M. LIPSEY, R. E. AND ZEJAN, M. (1994). “What Explains Developing Country Growth?” NBER Working Paper No. 4132, National Bureau of Economic Research,

BORENSZTEIN, E.; DE GREGORIO, J. AND LEE, J. (1998), “How Does Foreign Direct Investment Affect Economic Growth?” Journal of International Economics, June 1998, 45(1): 115-35.

BRADY D., M. WALLACE (2000), “Spatialization, Foreign Direct Investment, and Labor Outcomes in the American States, 1978-1996”, Social Forces, Vol. 79 (1) pp. 67-105.

CAMPOS, N. F., KINOSHITA, Y., (2002), “Foreign Direct Investment as Technology Transferred: some Panel Evidence from the Transition Economies.” William Davidson Working Paper Number 438.

CHAUDHURI, S., BANERJEE, D. (2010), “FDI in Agricultural Land, Welfare and Unemployment in a Developing Economy”, Research in Economics, 64 229–239.

CHEN TJ, KU YH (2000), “The Effect of Foreign Direct Investment on Firm Growth: the Case of Taiwan’s Manufactures”. Japan World Econ 12:153–172

CHOUDHRY T., (1995), “Long-run Money Demand Function in Argentina During 1935-1962:Evidence From Cointegration and Error Correction Models”, Applied Economics 27,. 661-667.

CONNELLY,M.,(1983), “İrlanda’da Yabancı Sermaye Büyümesi ve Elde Edilen Sonuçlar”, Dış Ülkelerde Yabancı Sermaye Tecrübesi, İstanbul, YASED Yayınları, No:10, 1983, s.17-26.

ÇENESİZ, M.A., PIERDZIOCH,C. (2010) “ Capital mobility and labor mar-ket volatility “International Econ Policy 7: 391–409 DOI 10.1007/s10368-010-0146-z.

DE MELLO, L.R. (1999), “Foreign Direct Investment-led Growth: Evidence from Time Series and Panel Data”, Oxford Economic Papers, 51, 133-151.

DE NEGRİ, J. Mario S. and Antonio, D. and Kraay, A. (2002), “Growth is Good for the Poor”, Journal of Economic Growth, 7, 193-225.

DOLLAR,D.,KRAAY,A. (2004), “Trade, Growth, and Poverty” The Economic Journal,114, 22-49

FEDDERKE, J.W, ROMM, A.T (2006) , “Growth Impact and determiants of Foreign Direct Investment İnto South Africa, 1956-2003 “Science Direct, Economic Modelling 23,738-760.

FOSFURI, A., MOTTA, M., RONDE, T. (2001), “Foreign direct investment and spillovers through workers’ mobility,”Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 205-222, February.

GHOSH R.A., VAN DEN BERG, H. (2006), “Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: A Time-Series Analysis,” Global Economy Journal, 6, 1-19.

HASKEL, J.E., SLAUGHTER, M.J. (2003), “Have Falling Tariffs and Transportation Costs Raised US Wage Inequality?,”Review of International Economics, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 11(4), pages 630-650, 09.

HUNG, T. H., (2006), “Attracting FDI in agriculture and rural development- status and solutions for improvement “International Support Groupe PolicyAdvisory Briefing (PAB) No. 4

PAB%20No%204-FDI-e.pdf (21.11.2010).

JOHANSEN, S. (1988), “Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors”, Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control 12 (2-3), (June-September),. 231–254.

JOHANSEN, S., K. Juselius (1990), “Maximum likelihood estimation and inference on cointegration– with applications to the demand for Money”, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 52 (2). 169-210.

JOSHUA, A., PINTO,B., RADZIWILL,A. (2004), “Sources for Financing Domestic Capital -- Is Foreign Saving a Viable Option for Developing Countries?," NBER Working Papers10624, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

KARAGÖZ, K. (2007), “Doğrudan Yabanci Yatirimlarin İstihdama Etkisi: Türkiye Örneği” 8. Türkiye Ekonometri Ve İstatistik Kongresi 24-25 Mayıs 2007 – İnönü Üniversitesi Malatya http://Web.Inonu.Edu.Tr/~Eisemp8/Bildiri-Pdf/Karagoz.Pdf

KATZ, L.F., MURPHY,K. M. (1992), “Changes in Relative Wages, 1963-1987: Supply and Demand Factors,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(1), pages 35-78, February.

KAYA, Y. (2008), “Proletarianization with Polarization: Industrialization, Globalization and Social Class in Turkey, 1980-2005.” Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 26 (2): 161-181.

KOLSTAD, I., VILLANGER, E. (2004), “How does social development affect FDI and domestic investment?” CMI Reports.

LENSINK, R., O. MORRISSEY (2006), FDI: Flows, Volatility and the Impact on Growth, Review of International Economics, 14: 3, 478-493.

LEVINE, R., RENELT, D. (1992), “A sensitivity analysis of cross-country regressions”, American Economic Review, 82, 4, 942-63.

LIPSEY, R., SJÖHOLM, F. (2004), “Host Country Impacts Of Inward FDI: Why Such Different Answers?,” EIJS Working Paper Series 192, The European Institute of Japanese Studies.

MSUYA, ELIBARIKI (2007), “The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on Agricultural Productivity and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania” MPRA Paper No. 3671,

MUTLUER D.- Y. BARLAS (2002), “Modelling the Turkish Broad Money demand”, Central Bank Review, 2 (2), pp. 55-75.

NGUYEN, THI PHUONG HOA (2003), ―Contribution of Foreign Direct Investment to Poverty Reduction: The Case of Vietnam in the 1990s, In: Michael Frenkel and Georg Stadtmann (eds.): Foreign Direct Investment: Theory, Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications, Verlag fuer Wissenschaft Un,

SARISOY, İ., KOÇ, S. (2010), “Doğrudan Yabanci Sermaye Yatirimlarinin Yoksulluk Üzerindeki Etkisi”, Turgut Özal Uluslararasi Ekonomi ve Siyaset Kong-resi – I, Küresel Krizler ve Ekonomik Yönetişim, Malatya, Türkiye.

SHARMA, B., ABEKAH, J. (2008), “Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth of Africa,” Atlantic Economic Journal, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 36 (1): 117-118.

ŞİMŞEK,M., BEHDİOĞLU,S. (2006), “Türkiye'de Dolaysız Sermaye Yatı-rımlarının Ekonomik Büyüme zerindeki Etkisi: Uygulamalı Bir Çalışma” Atatürk Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 20 (2): 47-65.

THANGAVELU, S. M., A. B. JIUNN AND JAMES (2004), “Financial Development and Economic Growth in Australia: An Empirical Analysis”, Empirical Economics, 29 (2), 247-260.

WORLDBANK, 2008, Report No. 39194 “Turkey Country Economic Me-morandum Sustaining High Growth: Selected Issues “Volume I – Main Report April 10, 2008 Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Unit Europe and Central Asia Region.

YABUUCHİ, S. (1999), “Foreign Direct Investment, Urban Unemployment and Welfare.” Journal of International Trade and Economic Development 8: 359- 371.

YASED (2010), “International Capital In Turkey’s Industrial Sector”

YOUNG, S.,HUANG, C.H.,McDERMOTT,M. (1996), “Internationalization and Competitive Catchup Processes: Case Study Evidence On Chinese Multinational Enterprises”, Management International Review, 36, 4, 295-314.